Category: General Psychology


Better to Unfriend You!: The Effect of Ostracism and Group Membership on Unfriending Behavior

A growing body of literature has revealed that there are various reasons for unfriending in SNSs (Social Network Sites) such as posting too frequently and polarizing topics, making crude comments, and getting minimal contact. The present study aims at the effect of ostracism and group membership on unfriending behavior in SNSs. We used Cyberball Paradigm


Emotional Responses to Different Modes of Occlusion Applied to Phrases Expressing Situational/Emotional Concepts

In prior basic research exploring the influence of different Chinese character structures and varied positions of occlusion, the speed and accuracy of character reading recognition has been explored. Based on those cumulative research results, this study extends the investigation from occluding single words to occluding phrases. The experimental design, tested on 105 men and 115


Influence of Speed and Effort on Moral Judgment of Cognitive Enhancement

Previous research suggests that pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) is viewed negatively due to perceived medical uncertainty, coercion, and unfairness and hollowness of the outcome. With the increasing advancement in and use of technology, along with a shift towards machines and gadgets, there seems to exist a need for humans to improve their mental functioning in


Investigating the Relationships Between Attachment Style and Subjective Well-Being in a Sample of Remote Workers in Taiwan

With the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work has become a preferred work style for many workers. However, this study examined the attachment style and well-being of remote workers in the post-pandemic workplace, where human interaction and connection have been limited. During the past three years, we recruited a sample of 306 remote workers in Taiwan. In


Research on User Experience Design of Public Warning System: A Case Study of Earthquake Alert of Mobile Device

The earthquake alert is a warning message the public will receive when an earthquake occurs in Taiwan. Although the information distribution unit is the central government, the core of the construction lacks a user perspective. Through affinity mapping of user experience investigation, it is found that most users want to receive information about “main earthquake,”


The Vergence-Accommodation Conflict in Stereoscopic Environments: A Comparison of Theoretical and Gaze-Based Vergence Angle

The utilization of 3D displays has become significant in various fields such as vision research, medical imaging, surgical training, scientific visualization, virtual prototyping, and other related applications. In many of these applications, it is necessary for the graphic image to accurately depict the 3D structure of the portrayed object. Unfortunately, the perception of 3D structures


Consequences of Friendship at the Workplace, Psychological Safety, and Thriving at Work Towards Innovative Work Behavior Among Personnel of Telecommunication and Communication Service Provider in Thailand

At present, technological advancement is an important instrument in measuring the advantages of business competition. The personnel of each organization is a pivotal key to organizational development. Promoting innovative behaviors in the workplace is conducive to creativity and driving ideas to reality. It is an important strategy leading to the designated goals of the organization.


Comparative Study on Causes of Suicide in India and Japan

This study aimed to understand the reasons behind suicide, a major public health issue causing hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year. The research approach was quantitative, using publicly available secondary data on suicide rates and other relevant information. The data was analyzed using cross-tabulation techniques to compare the reasons for suicide in India


Psychological Experiences of Hikikomori During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Literature Review

The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting lockdowns have raised concerns about hikikomori, a phenomenon characterized by prolonged confinement to one’s living space. This literature review aims to highlight differences in understanding the psychological experience of hikikomori after being in a pandemic where physical isolation was warranted. We searched APA PsycINFO (March 2020-Current) for articles in English


A Psychometric Review of Three Measures of Social Isolation Among Japanese Adults

The Japanese Ministry of Health maintains that the term “hikikomori” refers to prolonged, voluntary isolation or confinement to one’s living space for at least 6 months. However, the conceptualization of hikikomori as a disorder and the development of its measures within the context of the pandemic are still novel. As such, the purpose of this


The Effects of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) Group Counseling Program to Enhance Flow in Playing Music of Music Students

This study is the quasi-experimental research. Its purposes were to 1) comparing the flow in playing music of students majoring in musiac between before and after attending mindfulness based cognitive therapy group counseling program; and 2) comparing the flow in playing music of students majoring in music between the experiment group, who attended a group


The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioural Group Therapy on Infertile Men, a Randomised Clinical Trial

We tried to investigate the effects of cognitive behavioural group therapy (CBGT) on infertile men’s anger and positive and negative affect. Forty-three men with infertility for at least five years were selected for a randomised clinical study. Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-II (STAXI-II) and the PANAS scale (positive and negative affect) were filled out by


COVID-19 Preventive Behavior of Young Adults Living With Elderly Through the Lens of Health Belief Model

To suppress the Covid-19 pandemic, a series of preventive measures, both promotive and interventive were taken. From small children to the elderly, socialization continues to be carried out. However, there are quite a lot of risk factors for the elderly group, including comorbidity and elderly age. Then how about individuals living with the elderly? This


Personality Types, Illness Cognition and Health-Related Quality of Life in Myocardial Infarction

The illness cognition approach proposes that individuals try to make sense of changes in their somatic state. Through the process of sense-making, individuals develop their models of illness. These models influence their coping strategies as well as their quality of life. Illness cognition has been studied as an independent variable related to health-related outcomes. However,


Gaming Motivation: Developing a New Tool to Measure Psychological Motivations to Play Video Games

Video games are rapidly becoming a part of our daily life, both for entertainment and learning purposes and people of every age play them. The literature about gaming motivation has exponentially increased in recent years and researchers are thriving to understand what pushes people into playing video games by building scales that are able to


The Interaction Between Biological and Sociocultural Factors Increases Risk of Cancer in East Asian Alcohol Flushers

One of the most common causes of human cancer is alcohol consumption. There has been evidence that shows drinking increases the risk of cancer in the mouth and throat, larynx, colon, liver, female breast, and especially the esophagus. However, much of the existing data is collected from Western countries. This literature review aims to evaluate


Music Therapy Clinical Trials in Asia and Around the Globe

Music therapy has become more common globally as nonpharmacological treatment options for memory loss, pain management, reduction of behavioral and psychological symptoms, and increased quality of life. The purpose of this systematic review is to analyze music interventions for older adults across the globe to better understand emerging best practices. A review of all studies


Relationship Between Religiosity and Receptive Attitude Toward Muslims Among Japanese Students

With a growing Muslim population in Japan, there is an increasing need to understand and foster a positive attitude to live in harmony with Muslims. However, reports show that Japanese people are confused by specific religious views of Muslims in their interactions (Nakano & Tanaka, 2017). They also refrain from discussing religion as they consider


The Effect of Romantic Relationship on the Perceived Development of Anxiety Amongst High School Students

Romantic relationships are a major developmental milestone among adolescents, but when young and unprepared high schoolers explore them, it can be a source of great anxiety resulting in emotional upheavals. This study aimed to ascertain the perceived anxiety level of high school students involved in a romantic relationship according to gender, age, and length of


An Exploratory Study of Information on COVID-19 Vaccines Obtained by Japanese Working Adults Through Social Media

The first COVID-19 vaccinations in the United States and Europe began in 2020. In Japan, however, they started in 2021, much later than in the rest of the world. At that time, all kinds of information about the COVID-19 vaccine were flooding on social media, which may have influenced attitudes toward vaccination. This study aimed


The Impact of Paternal Childcare on Perceptual Information Processing

Paternal childcare is a predominantly human behaviour rarely observed in other mammals. However, the active involvement in paternal childcare only increased during the last century due to the growing number of women joining the workforce after childbirth. Despite the growing social acceptance of a caregiving father, it is unknown whether becoming a father might shape


Development of Realistic Optimism Scale

This research aims to develop a scale to measure realistic optimism and examine its validity and reliability. First, the researcher corrected items of the conventional scale proposed by Magari (2013) and added a number of items to create a realistic optimism scale of 16 items (original scale). Using the original scale, a preliminary survey was


Epistemological Perspectives on the Concept of Cultural Humility in Psychology

The present paper will focus on cultural humility, by highlighting this concept’s theoretical and practical significance in advancing cross-cultural understanding in psychology. In the recent psychological literature, cultural humility has been described as a core value, consisting in the psychologist’s engagement to an interpersonal stance that is other-oriented and self-reflective in relation to cultural identities


Gender Differences in Relationships Among Conscious and Unconscious Cognition of Culpability of Bullying Victims and Accepting Attitudes Toward Bullying

Examining the validity of the Implicit Association Test for assessing unconscious cognition of culpability of bullying victims, including the idea that bullying victims are also responsible for being bullied (Hori et al., 2020a), indicated significant gender differences in the subscale scores of the scale for measuring accepting attitudes toward bullying (Shinto & Saito, 2001). However,


Gender Differences in the Effects of Expectancies for Hypnotic State on Attitude Towards Hypnosis

Significant but weak positive correlations between expectancies for the hypnotic state and attitude towards hypnosis (Nakatani et al., 2021a) are reported in women. Fukui (2012a, b) analyzed gender as a control variable and found the moderating effects of interpersonal dependency or empathy in the effects of expectancies for the hypnotic state on attitude towards hypnosis.


Japanese University Students’ Intention to Seek Help From Psychological Professionals Compared to Family Members and Friends

There was no national certification for psychologists in Japan until recently. However, nearly 30,000 licensed psychologists have registered since the Licensed Psychologists Law was promulgated in 2015. Nevertheless, it remains challenging to consult a psychologist, possibly because psychologists lack recognition as consultants, despite societies’ recognition of the need for their services. We compared the intention


The Modulation of Cultural Priming on the Self-Bias Effects in Perceptual Matching

Recent research has discovered a bias towards the processing of self-relevant information in perceptual matching tasks. Judgments for self-associated stimuli are processed faster and more accurately than judgements for friend or stranger associated stimuli. It is also well known that priming of independent or interdependent self-construals successfully modulate self-biases in high-level tasks such as self-referential


The Construction of Self-Awareness Efficiency Scale for Helping Professionals

In the helping profession, having good self-awareness can effectively improve the working efficiency while helping others. The purpose of the study is to provide a better understanding by constructing a “Self-Awareness Efficiency Scale for Helping Professionals (SAES)”. The research is divided into four stages. The first stage is “qualitative interview” stage. The researcher invited six


The Process of Overcoming Difficulties and Gaining Happiness by Realistic Optimists – Relationship between Well-Being and Realistic Optimism

Objective: This study examines how the people with realistic optimistic view overcome difficulties and obtain well-being and also examine how they perceive well-being. Method: Initially a questionnaire survey was conducted on 17 correspondence students aged above 60 using realistic optimism scale. 8 participants who scored high in the questionnaire survey were chosen for the interview.


Sex Differences in the Regulation of Pain Empathy: Evidence from the EEG Mu Rhythm Measurements

Contrary to the long-held belief that empathyㅡsharing others’ emotionsㅡis reflexive and automatic, recent evidence has begun to emphasize the role of top-down modulation in empathic experience. That is, empathy is increasingly being regarded as a phenomenon regulated by motivation. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether there exist sex differences in empathy


The Risky-choice Framing Effect During Repeatedly Decision Process in Dynamic Context

Prospect theory can predict the susceptibility of framing effect such that decision-makers are opt for taking risks when they feel lost for the static decision tasks, where one only needs to make one decision, but the theory fails to predict the susceptibility for the dynamic decision tasks, where one needs to make a group of


Mindfulness and Depression: The Mediating Role of Psychological Flexibility

Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine the mediating role of psychological flexibility on the relationship between mindfulness and depression. Method: The participants were 312 high school students in Thailand. The sampling method was multistage cluster sampling. Research instruments were Psychological Flexibility Scale for Adolescents (PFSA-Thai), Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D-Thai)


Comparative Interpretation of Tree Painting between People on Different Loneliness Levels

Tree drawing is a form of projective test used to assess one’s development (Koch, 1992). In Jungian psychology, tree(s) are often used as a symbol of development; representing a mirror on a person’s inner and outer situation (Isaksson et al., 2009). The metaphorical interpretation of tree(s) can be symbolised as how a person relates to


Maternal Affect, Work and Family Conflicts, and Infant Negative Affectivity: A Longitudinal Study of Working Mothers in Singapore

Infant negative affectivity (NA) refers to an infant temperament characterized by a predisposition toward anger, frustration, fear, and sadness. There is growing recognition of the influence of maternal factors on infant NA which could affect an infant’s long term development. This paper documented the preliminary findings of a longitudinal study that aimed to explore maternal


The Association Between Parental Anxiety and Early Parenting Behaviour at Six Weeks Postpartum

The present study investigated the influence of parents’ anxiety on their parenting behaviour towards their newborn infants. Five types of parenting behaviour were examined, namely, discipline, parent-led routine, apprehension, nurturance, and involvement. A total of 635 participants (350 mothers, 285 fathers) were recruited at six weeks postpartum from a regional hospital in Singapore. According to


Prevalence and Predictors of Exercise Addiction – A Comparison between High School and College Students in the United States

There is a growing recognition of exercise addiction (EA), which is characterised by uncontrollable and excessive exercise resulting in physical and psychological problems. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of EA and compare its predictors in high school and college students in the United States. 533 high school (mean age = 17.39) and 1240


Character Strengths as Paths to Spiritual Life

There is a noticeable increase of interest in the study of spirituality within the context of positive psychology. The literature review shows several parallels between dimensions of spirituality as explored within psychology of religion and spirituality, and the model of character strengths (CS), as developed by positive psychology. However, coming from the domain of psychology


The Effect of Negative Emotions on Food Intake and Maladaptive Eating Behaviour: A Literature Review

Taking into account the existing literature, it seems that negative emotions and maladaptive eating behaviour are interrelated and causally linked. Some research suggests that negative emotion decrease after maladaptive eating behaviour (Smyth et al., 2001) while others suggest that it does not decrease (Evers et al., 2018) or continues to increase (Haedt-Matt and Keel, 2011).


Using Mask Painting to Assess Individual Role Preference in a Society

Mask painting is a form of instrument in art therapy to assess (Trepal-Wollenzier & Wester, 2002) and to be utilized as a therapeutic device (Janzing, 1986). In Jungian psychology, mask reflects human expression that represents individual relations to the environment (Konijn & Hoorn, 2017). Creating a mask is projecting the self into mask form (Malchiodi,


Values as Predictor of Youth Procrastination in the Conditions of Globalization

Procrastination as a voluntary, irrational postponement of the planned actions despite the fact that it will cost a lot or will have a negative effect on a person, became the disease of our times (Milgram, 1992). In spite of the fact that procrastination becomes a more serious problem in business, as in well as in


Humanistic Approach on Art Therapy In Attempts To Create Balance Self-Concept

This research paper explores the connection between Self-Concept and developmental process of a person in attempt to understand better about how obscurity in Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) and Self-Concept Differentiation (SCD) can create incongruence that will affect one’s function as a human. Holistic experience in each life event play major roles to clarify about own Self-Concept,


Empathy and Late Adolescents’ Self in Digital Age

Adolescents develop a sense of self by exploring the world through social interaction. However, the digital technology nowadays changes the way how adolescents interact. By spending time online, adolescents enjoy to interact with others virtually than face-to-face. This superficial interaction might reduce their capacity to understand what others’ thinking and feeling, which is called by


The Development of the Resilience Questionnaire for Elementary School Students: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

The purpose of the study was to develop the Resilience Questionnaire for Elementary school students by using confirmatory factor analysis. The participants were selected by multi stage cluster random sampling. The participants were 311 elementary school students aged 9-11 years and studying grade 4-6. Factor analytic findings supported a five-factor model of resilience, which consisted


Psychological Effect of the Menstrual Cycle on an Emotional Go/Nogo Task and Its Relation to Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin Levels

Numbers of previous studies have suggested that the menstrual cycle of healthy women with natural menstrual cycle influences facial emotion processing. We investigated the effect of the facial expression as the emotional distractor on the behavioral inhibitory processes in the follicular and luteal phases. Especially, we focused on the oxytocin and prolactin levels which are


Social Support and Life Satisfaction of Burns Survivors: Relationship with Demographics

Burn survivors are facing many challenges which are affecting their life satisfaction. Even at discharge from hospital, majority of burn survivors reported extra misery and lesser satisfaction with life than the normative samples (Patterson, Ptacek, Cromes, Fauerbach, & Engrav, 2000). Present study was conducted to study the social support and life satisfaction, with specific role


Stages of Consciousness Formation

The purpose was to describe the basic stages of formation of the personality: A. On the basis of development of the informational processes in Consciousness. B. For the purpose of reaching the highest results. The basic questions are the qualitative changes and their conditions. Stage 1. External programming: accurate statements form operating programs of Consciousness,


The Relationship between Gambling Behavior, Emotional Intelligence and Self-Esteem in Adolescence

Accumulating research suggests that gambling can negatively affect core domains of development, particularly among adolescents. The present study sought to explore the relationship between gambling behavior, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem in a sample of 324 Greek adolescents (x=13.9). Measures of constructs included the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA) (Winters, Stinchfield, & Fulkerson, 1993),


Classifying and Defining Heterogeneity within Antisocial Behaviour

Antisocial behaviour is often classified into physically aggressive and non-aggressive behaviour with respect to the aetiology, correlates and development trajectories (e.g. Burt, 2012; Maughan et. al., 2000). However, every research uses different terminologies for certain types of antisocial behaviour. For instance, one research (Fassnacht, 2010) uses relational versus instrumental whereas another one (e.g. Pardini &


Self Efficacy and Locus of Control as Predictors of Prosocial Behaviour and Organizational Commitment among a Sample of Nigerian Nurses

There are lot of negative perceptions people have about nurses’ prosocial behaviour and organizational commitment. However, only few researchers have taken time to investigate this. Therefore, this study sets to investigate and confirm if this is actually true and the influence of self efficacy and locus of control. To achieve this, a well structured questionnaire


Free Will Beliefs and Moral Responsibility: Disbelief in Free Will Leads to Less Responsibility for Third Person’s Crime

This study examined the effects of belief in free will on attribution of moral responsibility. Past research conducted in Western countries has found that people’s belief in free will influences subsequent social judgment and behavior. For example, induced disbelief in free will caused participants to give lighter prison sentences of the criminal (Shariff, Greene, Karremans,


The “Uncanniness”

The Uncanny Valley is a phenomenon first described by Masahiro Mori in 1970. The theory notes that the more advanced our technology becomes the more similar to us robots become, and this human resemblance unnerves us. Back in the 50’s, there were many industrial robots, the kind of robots that do not have a human-like


Violence towards other Family Members by Patients with Alcoholism and Schizophrenia

Objective: This descriptive research aimed to study the prevalence of violence toward family of schizophrenia with alcohol drinking patients, character of violence and consequence of violence. Methods: The sample consisted of 96 family members of schizophrenia with alcohol drinking patients hospitalized as inpatients at Khon Kaen Rachanakharin Psychiatric Hospital. The Data collection were applied by


Consumer Guilt, Online Resale and Purchase Intention

Consumer guilt is a critical factor affecting consumers’ purchase decisions. Marketers would apply various strategies to reduce the sense of guilt so consumers can be more willing to spend the money. With the popularity of online auction, consumers can easily resell unwanted online by themselves, and the return of the resale may lower their sense


The Effect of Post-Learning Caffeine Consumption on the Learning and Retrieval of Non-Verbal Stimuli

The present study aimed to conceptually replicate a recent study showing improvements in cognition when caffeine was consumed following learning. Thirty-two non-naive participants were administered 200mg of caffeine either: Pre-Learning, Post-Learning, or At-Retrieval, and compared to non-caffeine administered Controls. The learning and retrieval of non-verbal stimuli was assessed using a Korean Characters Non-Verbal Learning task,


The Effects of Association and Emotion in False Memory

The purpose of this study was to discuss the effects of association and emotion in false memory by using a DRM paradigm procedure. This study employed a 3 (association: semantic association vs. category association vs. neighborhood association) × 3 (emotion: positive vs. neutral vs. negative) mixed design, to examine the effects of association and emotion


The effect of social exclusion on color preference

The current study examined the effects of social exclusion on color preference. Previous researches have suggested that people are more likely to choose hot food when they feel lonely than to choose cold food when they feel sociable. We hypothesized that participants who recalled social exclusion experiences are more likely to prefer warm colors than


Parenting Style Preferences in Malaysia

This is a cross sectional study that investigated perceived parenting styles and its effect on social skills development among 500 young adults in Malaysia. Parenting styles was investigated from two dimensions (responsiveness and demandingness) and was measured with the parenting style Index by Steinberg and Darling (1992), while social skills was measured with the life