The Japanese Ministry of Health maintains that the term “hikikomori” refers to prolonged, voluntary isolation or confinement to one’s living space for at least 6 months. However, the conceptualization of hikikomori as a disorder and the development of its measures within the context of the pandemic are still novel. As such, the purpose of this study is to compare the psychometric properties of three separate measures for hikikomori that have been previously tested with Japanese adult samples. Criteria included favorable reliability (e.g., stability, internal consistency, and equivalence) and validity (e.g., content, criterion, and construct), cultural applicability, and theoretical relevance. The three measures under investigation were: The Adaptive Behaviors Scale for Hikikomori Self Report version (ABS-H-SR; Nonaka & Sakai, 2022), Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6; Kurimoto et al., 2011), and The Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25; Teo et al., 2018). All measures presented sound psychometric properties; however, the ABS-H-SR demonstrated especially high interpretability, excellent CFA model fit, and relevance within the context of the pandemic. The LSNS-6 was critiqued for its brevity, and the HQ-25 was not prioritized due to its lack of psychometric review, though this scale is still considered for further evaluation. This systematic review provides recommendations for cross-cultural and contextual adaptations on how to measure social isolative tendencies in future research.
Emi Ichimura, Seattle Pacific University, United States
Joel Jin, Seattle Pacific University, United States