Development of Realistic Optimism Scale


This research aims to develop a scale to measure realistic optimism and examine its validity and reliability. First, the researcher corrected items of the conventional scale proposed by Magari (2013) and added a number of items to create a realistic optimism scale of 16 items (original scale). Using the original scale, a preliminary survey was conducted on 260 university students (age range: 18-24). As a result of exploratory factor analysis, 3 factors consisting of 13 items were extracted (provisional scale). Next, the researcher conducted a second survey on 841 university students (age range: 18-24) using the provisional scale. 3 factors (“Future Orientation,” “Flexibility,” and “Will and Courage”) consisting of 12 items were extracted by factor analysis (Main scale). Cronbach α coefficient was calculated to examine the internal consistency of this scale (α=.60~.86). Convergent validity was examined by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the factors of realistic optimism scale and the factors of resilience scale (“Competence,” “Positive Evaluation,” and “Social Support”). As a result, a significant positive correlation was observed between the two, confirming convergent validity (r=.28**~.67**). Furthermore, the result of the test-retest method (n = 210) showed that all the factors and items are significantly correlated (r=.63~.80). These results confirm the validity and reliability of the realistic optimism scale. The present study has a certain significance in that it refers to a way of life of optimism rooted in real life and human strength.

Author Information
Aneesah Nishaat, Soka University, Japan

Paper Information
Conference: ACP2022
Stream: General Psychology

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Posted by James Alexander Gordon