Significant but weak positive correlations between expectancies for the hypnotic state and attitude towards hypnosis (Nakatani et al., 2021a) are reported in women. Fukui (2012a, b) analyzed gender as a control variable and found the moderating effects of interpersonal dependency or empathy in the effects of expectancies for the hypnotic state on attitude towards hypnosis. However, no studies have treated gender as a moderating variable. We examined the moderating effects of gender in the effects of expectancies for the hypnotic state on attitude towards hypnosis. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess expectancies for the hypnotic state and attitude towards hypnosis. Participants were undergraduate and graduate students. The data partly overlap with those of Fukui et al. (2018, 2019), Imaida et al. (2019), and Nakatani et al. (2018a, b, 2019a-f, 2020a, b, 2021a, b). Results indicated that the positive effect of the expectancy for the ability to improve was marginally significant, and the positive effect of the expectancy for being relaxed, and the second-order interaction among gender, expectancy for the loss of subjectivity, and the expectancy for memory recall was significant. Simple interaction tests showed significant interactions in men and women. Therefore, a simple slope analysis was conducted, which indicated that when the expectancy for the loss of subjectivity was high, the expectancy for memory recall had a negative effect on attitude towards hypnosis in men, but a positive effect in women, suggesting gender differences in the effects of expectancies for the hypnotic state on attitude towards hypnosis.
Tomomi Nakatani, Graduate School of Konan University, Japan
Yoshikazu Fukui, Konan University, Japan
Shin-ichi Oura, Tokai-Gakuin University, Japan
Takahiro Imaida, International and Psychological Support Association, Japan