Category: Education & Difference: Gifted Education, Special Education, Learning Difficulties & Disability

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In-Service Expatriate Teachers’ Experiences With Inclusive Education in Chinese Private Schools

The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of in-service expatriate teachers who provide differentiated instruction for students with special educational needs (SEN) in regular classrooms at mainland Chinese private schools. The following central research question guided the study: What are the experiences of in-service expatriate teachers who provide differentiated instruction for

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2011–2020 Domestic Retention Intention Journal Paper Content Review: A Case Study of Teachers and Special Education Teachers

This paper applies the content analysis method to evaluate 15 domestic journal papers on teachers and their willingness to stay from 2011 to 2020. The analysis results show that most researchers come from educational backgrounds, followed by management departments. Most existing journal papers use quantitative research designs, but there are differences according to different research

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Effects of Four-Axis Joystick Device Interactive Technology on Children With Special Needs

In recent studies, employing self-made assistive technology as a resource in special education stands out as a crucial intervention for children with special needs. This study suggests creating an interactive tool intended to serve as an educational interface for children with diverse disabilities. The participants in this study were three children with cerebral palsy, multiple

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Profiling At-Risk College Students: Basis for Intervention

The retention rate in Mountain Province State Polytechnic College-Tadian Campus within the past five years is low at 66% while the graduation rate is even lower at 47%. Obviously, these are not encouraging figures but before one can suggest solutions to improve this existing condition, one has to determine the factors causing the prevalence of

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Challenges Encountered in the Implementation of Physical Education Program for Learners With Special Educational Needs in Cavite, Philippines

One of the sustainable development goals of the United Nations includes Quality Education which fall under SDG 4. This goal aimed for the presence and availability of education in high standards. In this connection, Quality Physical Education (QPE) as worldwide advocacy also promotes and ensures the high quality of implementation of Physical Education to produce

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A Talent Development Platform: Practical Guide

In the era of AI’s minds that exceed human intelligence, there are pressing needs for a talent development platform that integrates AI and human talents’ intelligence to solve complex problems. This paper presents a practical guide to a talent development platform [TDP] as a solution to address the unserved gifted population, the unmet need for

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Pedagogical Practices in Teaching Institution-Reared Children With Disabilities in the Philippines

Children with disabilities (CWD), depending on the need and the circumstance, may be placed in different living conditions outside of the typical family set-up. For instance, the Philippine government mandates that child-caring agencies (CCAs) and institutions to take care of orphaned, abandoned, and neglected individuals. This involves the need to ensure that the children under

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Intentional and Unintentional Exclusion: The Roles of Lecturers on Pedagogical Inclusion of Students With Visual Impairments in Higher Education

This study investigated lecturers’ perspectives on the pedagogical inclusion of Students with Visual Impairments (SVI) in higher education institutions in Namibia. Access to higher education remains a privilege for individuals with disabilities rather than a human right. Intentional and unintentional exclusion is still prevalent in higher education, with more adversity than a celebration of diversity.

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Prevalence of Dyslexia Involving Different Levels of Grapho-Phonemic Correspondence in Romance Languages

This study aims to relate dyslexia prevalence with different levels of grapho-phonemic correspondence in Romance languages. Thus, we propose to understand dyslexia through linguistic analysis based on the grapho-phonemic structure of languages, rather than strictly retating it to the neurobiological aspect of those individuals with this learning disorder, which is frequently associated with dyslexia. The

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The Construct Study on the Mindset Scale of Primary Gifted Students

The purpose of the study was to construct the cognitive mindset scale for primary gifted students. 120 elementary school students were participated in the pilot study, and there were 908 gifted students in the formal study. Item analysis, exploratory analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were adopted in the study. The conclusion was found that the

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Construction of Instructional Design Model Using Picture Books on Children With Specific Language Impairment

Compared with ordinary children, children with specific language impairment (SLI) have delayed language development, poor reading comprehension, and greater difficulties in learning. This study tested 5 SLI children at a primary school in northern Jiangsu Province in China in the last two years. This study aimed to develop and implement an instructional design model for

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Establishing Norm Reference for SLI Children in Mainland China

This study aims to establish a norm reference of children’s language development level. As many psychological-medical assessing tools are available for testing children’s language development or impairment, treatments from medical institutions and professions are often involved. However, a testing instrument designed for early detection of SLI children for in-service teachers is needed. The Assessment of

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Reflection on My Interactions With Student J Within the Framework of Motivational Interviewing

Current pedagogies for supporting academically struggling students mainly include tailoring learning contents to meet their differentiated needs or offering one-on-one interventions to improve their self-management. However, using counseling approach to elicit behavioral change has not been explored much. This case study analyzes my three conversations with an academically struggling student in a rural primary school

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The Current State and Challenges of Hungarian Music Schools: Special Educational Needs Students in the Focus

In the “country of Zoltán Kodály” music teaching, even today, is at international standards quality and instrumental education takes place in numerous institutions. In my presentation, I would introduce the educational system of Hungarian music schools, their opportunities and difficulties. Emphasising the education of students needing special treatment. (Special educational needs, integration-, learning- and behavioural

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Participation of Families in Inclusive Education in the First Cycle of Basic Education: A Systematic Review

Family participation in school has proven to benefit child’s self-esteem, equality in inclusive education, and to a more enriching and equitable educational environment. The present study aims to deepen the understanding of the participation of families in the process of Inclusive Education in the first cycle of Basic Education, intending to conceptualize participation, involvement, as

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Development of a Holistic Sexuality Education Model for Children with Special Needs

Inadequate sexuality education provision caused by negative connotations surrounding sexual health perpetuated major social issues that affect the community of persons with disabilities. To address this issue, a study was conducted to explore stakeholders’ perspectives towards developing a holistic sexuality education model for Malaysian children with special needs. The study adopted a multiple case study

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Reading Comprehension of Junior High School Students With Hearing Impairment in the Post Pandemic Classes

Reading is an essential life skill and one of the focal concerns of the academic system particularly among the learners. However, Junior High School (JHS) with hearing impairment in the post pandemic classes are facing challenges in reading comprehension. Their hearing impairment is pointed out to be the reason for their difficulty in comprehending what

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Breaking Free From the Medical Model Approach in Special Education: A Roadmap to Biopsychosocial Model – Latvian Experience

Disability models are crucial in understanding and addressing disability related issues and supporting people with special needs. The medical model, which views disability as a medical condition that can be treated or solved, is the oldest and most widely used disability model in most European countries, including Latvia. Health is considered the norm or ideal

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A Study on Vocational Commitment and Related Factors of Special Education Assistants in Taiwan

In recent years, Taiwan has invested a lot of resources in hiring special education assistants to assist students with disabilities and reduce the burden on special education teachers. Their job responsibilities include working under the supervision of teachers to meet their teaching needs, assisting classroom students with school learning and campus life, and many other

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Dyslexia and Graphocentrism: Neuroscience Contributions

This study focuses on the lack of special scientific agenda of Brazilian education institutions regarding dyslexia as a Learning Disorder, which unfortunately leads not only to students’ frustration, but also to a lack of interest and, consequently, it also leads to the false idea that successful reading and writing skills are the only actual proof

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An Exploratory Pilot Study on the Integration of Neurodiverse University Students Into Mainstream Learning and Their Performance: Case of Jones Learning Center

This pilot study explores the impact of inclusive classroom on neuro-diverse college students at Jones Learning Center (JLC) – University of the Ozarks, and their consequent academic performance having participated in an integrative process designed to support students who are intellectually capable of obtaining a college degree, but who require support for learning challenges owing

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Research on the Awareness of Affective Needs and the Design of Observation Checklist of Classroom Behavior for Gifted Students

This study tried to understand gifted students’ emotional needs and develop the observation checklist of classroom behavior for gifted students to improve the effectiveness of gifted educators’ counseling strategy and build a comprehensive preventive counseling mechanism for gifted students through class observations, interviews, and Delphi technique by gifted teachers with practical experience. We observed and

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Accessibility of Inclusive Education in Indonesia: A Trajectory From Classroom Practice to Policy Recommendation

Based on statistical data for Special Education (2020), there are a total of 2,270 Special Schools (SLB) at various levels of education units throughout Indonesia. With details of 593 schools owned by the government and 1,677 schools owned by the private sector. The number of SLB mentioned above is compared with the number of predictions

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An Evaluation of the Maltese School Literacy Environments and Practices of Students With Down Syndrome

This study aimed to evaluate the literacy abilities of students with Down Syndrome (DS) from the perspective of educators while also evaluating the school literacy environments of students with DS within the Maltese context. This enabled the researchers to investigate the level of collaboration between educators and other professionals, to evaluate whether educators were sufficiently

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Raise Your Voice: Students with Learning Disabilities’ Perspectives About Their Science Learning

There is an underrepresentation of individuals with disabilities in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Given the importance of diversity to achieve an evolving society, increasing the representation of individuals with disabilities in STEM post-secondary education and careers is essential. One way that this can be accomplished is by incorporating the voices

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Psychological Challenges as Factors of Learning Difficulties Among Cambodian Children

Given growing evidence indicating correlation between children’s learning issues and problems at home, this qualitative study aims to understand potential factors influencing learning difficulties in Cambodian primary education. In this way, the study informs ministries and decision makers to address the effect of the home environment on learning performance. With a qualitative design, the sample

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Characteristics of Executive Function and Its Relationship With Mastery Motivation in Young Children With Global Developmental Delays

Executive function encompasses multiple functions of brain related to cognitive constructs such as self-regulation and mastery motivation. Whether there was group difference executive function between young children with global developmental delay (GDD) and with typical development (TD) was unclear. The relationship of child mastery motivation with executive function has rarely been examined by previous studies.

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Exploring the Experiences of Dentists During Dental Visits of Patients with ASD

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder may manifest different behaviors during their checkups due to unusual stimuli inside the dental clinic. The dental practitioner and other staff may encounter difficulty anticipating the success of the treatment if both dentist and patient come unprepared. This study intended to explore the undesirable behaviors of patients with ASD and

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Educational Services for Students With Disabilities From Moving-In to Moving-Out of Chiang Mai University

The research objectives were to examine the state of educational services that Disability Support Services Center at Chiang Mai University (DSSCMU) provided to students with disabilities in compliance with the four strategies of education for individuals with disabilities in higher education under the Office of The Higher Education Commission. There were 59 participants in the

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Coaching and Mentoring Teachers to Accommodate Students With Learning Disabilities in Elementary Inclusive Classrooms

Research objectives were to investigate 1) teachers’ knowledge of coaching and mentoring methods and selecting appropriate teaching accommodation of both Thai language and mathematics in inclusive classrooms and 2) teachers’ performance competence, after receiving training, to select and utilize appropriate accommodations and/or modifications for individualized student’s lesson plan. The subjects were 10 Thai language and

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The Identity of People With Disabilities: Advancing Through a Study on Self-Determination and Self-Knowledge

The concept of identity has been a research topic for hundreds of years. Researchers have considered the influences of culture, physical development, and interpersonal relationships to describe how a person’s identity, or self-concept, develops. Another aspect of a person’s self-concept involves physical, mental, or learning disabilities. A study was conducted in southeastern Spain in 2021

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Force for Good: The Value of High-Achieving University Students in Tutoring Struggling Younger Students in Underserved Communities

Disparities in education access have been exacerbated by the pandemic. Children in communities with less access to education often experience additional vulnerability outside the classroom, compounding the gap between their education and that of other children. Given the paramount role that education plays in personal development, disparities in education pose a threat to the future

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Teachers’ Sentiments, Attitudes, and Concerns About Inclusive Practice in Higher Education

The policy of inclusive education (IE) regulates schools to provide educational opportunity to all students (regardless of learning disabilities) to study in the mainstream regular schools. However, there has been no consistent findings regarding the outcome of IE. Among the various factors associated with the efficacy of IE, teachers’ perception of IE was identified to

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Academic Motivation and Academic Self-concept of Students with Special Education Needs in Higher Education

Previous studies suggested that students with special educational needs (SEN) in the primary and secondary schools were fragile in self-efficacy and low in academic motivation. Nonetheless, more and more students with SEN completed secondary education and pursue their study at the tertiary level. Past research suggested that students with SEN spent additional efforts in coping

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A Cultural-Historical Approach to Children With Specific Language Impairment in China

Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a developmental disorder in children with lower language capacity than average children in the same age group without vivid physical or mental illness. Children with SLI in China have lower academic achievements than their peers; thus, they could be considered lazy or stupid. In the past two years of our

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Bad at Math? Or is It Dyscalculia? An Exploratory Study of Children With Dyscalculic Tendencies in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan

Fifty children were identified by their teachers as poor performers in math but at least average performers in other subjects. They were given a checklist of the warning signs of dyscalculia which include impaired basic arithmetic fact retrieval, lack of number sense, difficulty associating the four basic operations with their symbol and spoken term, and

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The Elements of a Conducive Online Distance Learning Environment for Deaf Students

A Conducive Online Distance Learning Environment poses a significant element in the education structure of Deaf students during this health emergency. It comprises several components that fulfill its role in creating an environment that enriches the learning of Deaf students. This study aims to identify the elements that promote learning in an online distance learning

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Choices Student-Athlete Made in Education & Future Career Aspiration: A Qualitative Study in Indonesia

Indonesia has a special national education policy concerning students with notable talents in which they are entitled to special coaching to develop their abilities. However, the implementation of this special program for sport-talented students is limited to cover up to high school age with little attention being put on the older students in higher education.

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Formulating Indicators of Creativity Among Gifted Learners in the Philippine Context

This study aimed to explore indicators that define creativity in the Philippine context. A qualitative textual study was employed which sought the data from varied participants chosen for their ethnic identity, cultural background, type of school, and academic level. The transcribed in-depth interviews were then thoroughly examined through textual analysis. Findings revealed that Filipino creative

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Orphans and School Vulnerabilities in Selected States in Nigeria

This study investigated the issues that relate with schooling of orphans in Nigeria. The descriptive survey research was undertaken in Lagos, Osun, Akwa Ibom, and Abuja. Sampling was done in multi-stages. A validated questionnaire was administered to collect data using Open Data Kit (ODK). Orphans aged 10-17 years, resident in orphanages and family settings, participated

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Exploring the Challenges of Academic Fatigue and Strategies to Enhance Retention for the Determined Ones (TDOs) in Online Learning

The daily activities of educational institutions globally were affected by the Covid-19 Pandemic in 2020. The abrupt transition from on-campus to distance learning gave students and educators limited time to prepare for such a massive shift in teaching and learning. Students with disabilities (dubbed TDO students in the UAE), were negatively impact because their normal

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DDMATH: New Approaches for Teaching Mathematics to Blind and Visually Impaired Students

This presentation is about DDMATH (https://ddmath.eu), a project funded by ERASMUS+ that brings together partners from 4 European Countries (Italy, Germany, Poland and France) under the coordination of the Association Paccini in Italy. The project targets blind and visually impaired students as well as their teachers with the aim to facilitate their learning of mathematics.

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Learning to Express Pain: Book-based Medical Expression AAC Learning for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities

Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices emerged in the 1980s as an effective communication support technology for individuals with complex communication needs . Naturally, AAC has been used in the special education field, especially gaining its popularity among individuals with developmental disabilities. Research shows that exposure to the AAC system helps individuals with developmental disabilities

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Inclusive Research With People With Intellectual Disabilities as Co-researchers – Towards Emancipation

Inclusive research covers various forms of participation of researchers with disabilities in the research process. Its idea is that non-disabled researchers create conditions for cooperation ensuring the maximum — meeting the needs of both parties — involvement of people with disabilities. It focuses on issues important primarily for the population of people with disabilities (co-researchers

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A Study of Electroencephalography (EEG) and Lego Wedo 2.0 on the Attention of First Grade Special Needs Students

The purpose of the study was to assess the Attention of first-grade special needs students by using EEG and Lego Wedo 2.0. The research subjects are 3 special needs students of the first-grade resource class in an elementary school. There were ASD student, learning disability student, and ADHD student. The researcher used the EEG system

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Progressing Education & Difference: Gifted Education, Special Education, Learning Difficulties & Disability Into a New Normal World

The covid-19 pandemic has impacted higher educational institutions and student learning considerably, particularly as rapid transitions to remote learning platforms were implemented. Traditional education has focused predominantly on progressing the student majority within a class. However, during the pandemic many disparities have been highlighted including marginalising students with learning difficulties, disabilities, and gifted students. This

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Cognitively Accessible Materials for Training in “Image and Sound” Aimed at Young People With Intellectual Disability – Design in Video Game Format

This work presents the adaptation of cognitively accessible materials for the training of students with intellectual disabilities in the field of “image and sound”. The field of image and sound is a new line of training that constitutes a specialty in the Liceo Diploma of the Complutense University of Madrid. Criteria were evaluated to analyze

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Whitewashed Tombs: Emergency Online Learning Through the Experiences of Students with Disabilities at a Rural South African University

The COVID-19 pandemic has induced an enormous effect on educational institutions globally. Rural institutions are at a greater disadvantage when compared to their urban counterparts which are better resourced with systems that enable the shift to emergency online learning. Challenges were particularly compounded for students with disabilities who appear to have been alienated from these

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A Multifaceted Approach to Complex Needs: Targeted Interventions for Gifted Students With Autism

Recent studies have focused on identification of gifted students with ASD and on their learning experiences; however, there appears to be a gap in the research regarding effective interventions for these students. Most intervention strategies target either the student’s giftedness or their ASD diagnosis, but their unique challenges require targeted interventions that extend beyond those

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Effect of Two Therapies and Gender on Reading Skills of Pupils With Learning Disabilities

Reading is a fundamental skill required for effective participation in academic tasks. This research investigated the significant main effects of Phonics and Neurological Impress Instructional Methods on the reading skills of pupils with learning disabilities. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design, a 3x2factorial matrix was used. Purposive sampling was used to select forty-five students with

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Resilience Among Teachers and Students with Learning Differences During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Similar Practices in Differing Contexts

When the COVID-19 pandemic started, teachers’ and students’ initial impressions were that a return to normal would occur soon and that the shift to online and distance learning were a short-term anomaly. After 18 months of pandemic restrictions that have caused distancing in both the teaching and other social aspects of learning, remaining resilient and

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An Assessment of Mothers’ Perception of Fathers’ Involvement in Digital Teaching and Learning During the Lockdown

Lockdown measures due to COVID-19 did not only foster digital teaching and learning but also influence family bonding. Hence, while the lockdown lasted, we were curious about fathers’ involvement in digital teaching and learning activities of learners who are Deaf/Hard of hearing. Thus, based on mothers’ perception, we examined the effects of fathers’ acceptance or

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The Background and Influence of Gender Inequity in Music Textbooks, and the Direction of Future Music Textbooks

Textbooks are fundamental resources for students in schools regardless of the level of education since students tend to learn countless new concepts and knowledge throughout the textbooks. The textbook itself has been examined by many researchers and studies to demonstrate its value and importance, and unmeasurable value has been proved. However, the higher its significance

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Nepalese EFL Teachers’ Perception and Practices of Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated Instruction (DI) is a pedagogical premise that provides benefits, such as meeting diverse learner needs, accommodating students with varying learning abilities (De Jesus, 2012). DI is not just for special education; it addresses every student’s needs without turning classrooms into cram schools or private tutoring lessons. Therefore, in light of recent progress in Nepal’s

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EasyTalk: A Digital Writer’s Workshop for Leichte Sprache (Easy-to-read German)

Leichte Sprache (LS; Easy-to-Read German) is a simplified variety of German characterized by simplified syntactic constructions and a small vocabulary (cf. Easy-to-read English). It provides barrier-free information for a wide spectrum of LS readers including individuals with learning difficulties, intellectual disabilities and/or a low level of literacy in the German language. By and large, text

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Teachers as a Source of Support: Perceptions of Parents of Children With ADHD During COVID-19 Distance Learning

This qualitative research, conducted during the COVID-19 distance-learning days, was designed to understand the perceptions of parents of primary-school-age children with ADHD of teachers as a source of support. To date, many studies have demonstrated the positive contribution of teacher-parent interaction to children’s school performance, an issue of special relevance to children with ADHD. The

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Effective Revising Instruction for Struggling Writers

Revising is a critical part of the writing process (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1986). Expert writers tend to make global text revisions and target more meaning-changing revisions, which lead to substantial improvement in overall writing quality (Butterfield, Hacker, & Albertson, 1996). However, poor writers have been found to experience difficulties with revising (Midgette, Haria, & MacArthur,

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Dyslexia and the English Language: Contributions to the Education in Regular Schools

Dyslexic people need their teachers to be knowledgeable about the subject for their learning can be effective. The “spelling, writing and reading area learning disorder”, as defines by the Dyslexia Brazilian Association (DBA), does not impede learning, as it is not an impairment; but teachers should take some differentiated attitudes. This case study aims to

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Construct Validity and Reliability Testing the Concept of Disaster Resistant Education in Inclusive Primary Schools

This study aims to test the validity and reliability of construct variables and indicators of disaster mitigation education models in inclusive primary schools, to determine the contribution of aspects and indicators in measuring variables, and to confirm the hypothesized model, namely the suitability of the model with the data using confirmatory factor analysis. This study’s

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What Play Does ASD Have in 3D Media Art Class

Most art-making such as drawing and painting are visional. However, the three-dimensional medium in visual art such as sculpture and installation art are spatial forms. Compared with painting, 3D media has the actual volume and spatial relationship with other objects. In handling 3D medium to make a work of art, students need to make sense

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Amplifying Vulnerabilities: How COVID-19 is Impacting Japanese at Risk Youth

There are 608 “Children’s Homes” (児童養護施設 jidō yōgo shisetsu) across Japan caring for youth unable to live their parents for an array of reasons mainly abuse and poverty. According to the most recent data 13.9% (2020 OECD) Japanese youth live in poverty and in 2018, 159,850 child abuse consultations were made (2018, MHLW). Institutionalization of

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Vocational Skill Training Model to Embody Social Independence of Mild Intellectual Disability People

Vocational skills for people moving towards adulthood, including for mild intellectual disability people, are requisite competencies. By having vocational skills, mild intellectual disability people may empower themself and raise their confidence to live in society as it will become the power to increase their social independence. Mild intellectual disability people have the right to work

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Exclusion/inclusion of Persons With Impairment: A Study on the Role of Language Vocabulary

The aim of this research was to examine the role of language in the lives of persons with impairment and how meanings get attached to words that make it discriminatory against a certain section of the society. This research questioned the routinization and normalization of these insulting words used for persons with impairment. To overcome

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The Inclusiveness of Inclusive Education – The Key Themes, Attitudes, and Challenges a Review of the Literature

The global initiatives of Education for All and inclusive education (IE) have created many unique problems as countries around the world find ways to both implement inclusive policies and with the realization of the different stakeholders learning to play their part in successful implementation. This study aims to use the literature on IE based on

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A Study on Students’ Cognitive Load, Learning Motivation, and Learning Strategies in a Engineering Course Integrating with Mobile Learning Tools

This study carried out via both qualitative and quantitative methods. Results showed that in terms of learning emotions, flipped classroom based on mobile learning had some effects on students’ “self-directed learning” and “self-efficacy”. Flipped classrooms had a more obvious effect on improving the low achievers’ intrinsic goal (learning motivation), metacognition (learning strategy) and resource management

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Orientation Courses for Migrants in Germany: Between Civic Adult Education and Neoliberal Tendencies

Migrants coming to Germany are obliged to take part in ‘integration courses’ in order to obtain residence titles. The curriculum proclaims these orientation courses as ‘value-based political education’. This paper analyzes the perception of the impact of the courses from the perspective of participants and teachers, focusing on neoliber-al fixations in tradition of the ‘Chicago

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A Voice E-book Reading System Designed for the Visually Impaired People

No matter in life, study, or at work, reading is one of the major sources to obtain information. However, traditional books are mostly printed on paper. The books are not suitable for visually impaired persons to read. Though such a situation can be improved by Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology. However, the quantity or timeliness

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Math Readiness: Early Identification of Preschool Children Least Ready for Formal Mathematics Instruction in School

Key mathematics competencies mastered in kindergarten are associated with higher mathematics achievement in later elementary and middle school. Unfortunately, deficits in math understanding can begin before students enter school, often due to home environments that lack sufficient mathematics enrichment. Moreover, the gap between students who begin school behind and their more prepared peers only widens

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Project Inclusive Education: People with Intellectual Disabilities work as University Lecturers

The German project Inclusive Education tackles, worldwide unique, the social isolation of people with intellectual disabilities via qualifying them in full-time over three years to be fully paid lecturers at universities. Participants have been diagnosed with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities (ICD-10-CM, Code F70 and F 71). The group of currently 31 participants is diverse

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The Characteristics of Arab Parents’ Orientation Regarding the Future of Their Children with Developmental Intellectual Disability

Future orientation focuses on the image an individual constructs regarding their future; including future goals and courses of action they set for themselves in order to realize these goals. The present study discusses the consolidation of the orientation of parents in the Arabic society regarding the future of their children with developmental intellectual disability who