Textbooks are fundamental resources for students in schools regardless of the level of education since students tend to learn countless new concepts and knowledge throughout the textbooks. The textbook itself has been examined by many researchers and studies to demonstrate its value and importance, and unmeasurable value has been proved. However, the higher its significance is mentioned the more constructive opinions targeted to the responsibility of textbooks appeared. Through diverse perspectives towards textbooks either skeptical or optimistic critics, it is not difficult to know textbooks take an important role in education. Nonetheless, as textbooks contain a weighty power, there are hidden dangers in the textbooks, which can considerably influence both students and educators. If textbooks convey biased information and incorrect social values, students and teachers unconsciously assimilate the textbook data, and it could result in confusion, limitation, and social issues to students and the entire society. For instance, although people neglect the existence of visual representations in textbooks, it continuously affects the readers. With these chained opinions, it is significant to observe the history of textbooks from the past to modern times from the criticized perspective regardless of subjects. Besides, it will investigate the current situation in music textbooks from the same perspective. This literature review will look closely at the generated issues from the biased textbooks especially gender-related stereotypes and issues in music education. Furthermore, this literature review would like to suggest a recommendation on the direction of textbooks in modern society to alleviate misconceptions and stereotypes.
Sori Kim, Columbia University, United States