Category: Primary & Secondary Education


Instructional Strategies for Teaching Computational Thinking in Secondary Computer Science Introductory Courses

The field of computer science (CS) faces a crisis in the U.S. because of the shortage of CS teachers and the low level of interest in majoring in CS. Students mention programming as a challenging topic in CS. Scientists suggested teaching computational thinking (CT) to improve programming outcomes. This study focused on four CT practices


A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Information Ethics for Primary School Administrators Under the Office of Basic Education Commission, Thailand

The purposes of this study were:1) to investigate components and indicators of Information Ethics for Primary School Administrators under the Office of the Basic Education Commission, Thailand; and 2) to verify congruence between a structural relationship model and the empirical data. The samples were 840 administrators and teachers in primary schools under the Office of


Condition Present, Condition Desirability and Necessary of Coding Education Management for Small Size Elementary Schools in the Northeast

The purposes of this research were to condition the present desirability and necessary of Coding education management. A sample group of the research is 370 small-sized elementary schools and the sample group using the formula Krejcie and Morgan, then using the Multi-stage random sampling method. Sample group has 370 directors, 370 technology teachers. The research


Education for European Citizenship – Reviewing EDC/HRE by Using Habermas’s Theory

The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the necessary education to cultivate European Citizenship qualities by focusing on Jürgen Habermas’s opinions on Europe as an integrated body and the theory of Communicative Action. In addition, since 1997, the Council of Europe has been running a citizenship education project throughout Europe called Education for Democratic


Development of Learning Kit and Module for a Technology Design (RBT) Subject: Insights From Needs Analysis

The electronic design process included in the Malaysian secondary school syllabus pose challenges to the teachers as it requires teaching aids to facilitate more effective understanding and practice of the process. Therefore, this study aimed to identify key elements in the development of a Technology Design (RBT) learning kit for the electronic design topic of


Poetry Dictation: Decrease the Pace to Increase the Appreciation

This workshop introduces and then practices poetry dictation. We’ll discuss the ways in which this process works and how we’ve made this very old practice feel new again in our classroom. The premise is simple and traditional. Students copy — by hand — a poem as it is read to them one line at a


The Relationships among Assessment Content, Learning Outcome, and Self-confidence of the Taiwanese Elementary Students about Astrology Concepts

The study aimed to investigate the relationships among assessment content, learning outcomes, and self-confidence performed by elementary students in Taiwan. Over three hundred fifth graders from seven different schools participated in this study. A measurement tool was developed by the researchers based on the revised Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives related to astrology concepts. At


Investigation of Interrelations in Social Factors, Engagement and Motivation in English Learning for Japanese Junior High School Students

In this presentation, I will describe how engagement in learning English, English motivation and social factors including encouragement from family, teachers and classmate are inter-related to each other. The study was conducted during the year of 2021-2022 during the pandemic period. In the study, 326 students aged between 13 and 15 participated, and they took


Classroom Education Management Discipline in Mathematics

In order to ensure the smooth implementation of middle school mathematics classroom education management, this study is based on the analysis of problems and influencing factors in middle school mathematics classroom education management, aiming at finding effective measures of classroom education management. This study takes Junior middle school teachers and students as the research objects,


Effect of Use of Screen on Child’s Development at Early Childhood Education Level

Screen time has become both a temptation and a popular pastime in recent years. Children are raised in an age of screen media and technology. The digital ecosystem is changing at a faster rate than studies into the impacts of screen media on young children’s development, learning, and family life. This study focuses on the


Innovation, Resilience and Continuity – The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Early Childhood Care and Education in Ireland

On March 12th, 2020, all ECEC providers in Ireland closed due to COVID19, and the responsibility of providing early learning opportunities fell predominantly onto parents. ECEC providers resumed operations from June 29th, 2020 implementing additional changes and measures to limit the risk of infection. This research sought to to explore the impact that the Covid-19


Correlates of School-based Sexuality Education: A Comparative Study of Students and Teachers of Secondary Schools in Hong Kong

This study examined factors associated with SBSE in secondary schools, with a view to provide information for effective implementation of SBSE. It looked into students’ and teachers’ sexual attitudes and their views on SBSE. Other associated factors, viz., religiosity, spirituality, and demographic characteristics were also examined. Participants were recruited via convenience sampling from three secondary


Digital and Tactile Games to Support Literacy Instruction

Literacy affects all components of our lives so the development of a strong foundation of literacy skills is critical. Games often tell a story while offering opportunities with repeated practice, strategic problem-solving, targeted goals, and trial and error (Haas, Metzger, & Tussey, 2021). Digital games, or video games, are often rich and complex forms of


Strategies and Activities to Promote Active Engagement in the Classroom

Educators understand the importance of active engagement in the classroom setting to promote higher order thinking. According to Hurst (2021), “research shows that students whose teachers spend too much time talking are less likely to be engaged during classroom instruction. Luckily, reading instruction can be so much more than lecture, reading practice, memorization, or decoding


Mathematics in Southern Europe: Mathematics Education and Performance, Through the Prism of PISA, in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain

A mathematically literate student, according to PISA and OECD, recognizes the role that mathematics plays in the world in order to make well-founded judgments and decisions needed by constructive, engaged and reflective citizens. Among European countries who have participated in PISA since 2000 till today, the top performing countries in mathematical literacy are concentrated more


Unveiling Educators’ Digital Media Skills in Teaching: A Case of South Africa

The South African education system is under a revolutionary transformation of digital media tools adoption and use in the teaching and learning. This has been exasperated by the eruption of Covid-19 pandemic worldwide in 2019 which demands educators to teach at distance. These developments among others call for the need to unpack educators’ pedagogical, technological,


Teacher-Targeted Bullying by Secondary School Students

The aim of our study was to gain insights into the teachers ́ targeted bullying from the perspective of teacher victims. We conducted a descriptive qualitative research design stemming from semi-structured interviews with the victims of teacher-targeted bullying. A thematic content analysis of the data was generated from interviews with 17 victimized teachers as a


The Exploration of Primary School Teachers’ Self-expectation Under the 5+2 Education Model – Take Nan’an City as an Example

China is implementing a series of” Further Reduce the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring on Students in Compulsory Education” (“Double Reduction”) policy, the aim of the double reduction policy is to ensure the quality of students’ learning and to require schools to improve after-school services to reduce the burden on families. This research mainly


The Mediating Role of Primary School Environmental Education in Promoting Children’s Pro-environmental Behavior: A Game Format Experiment

Enhancing children’s pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is crucial for a more sustainable future. To overcome environmental problems, the most effective and direct approach is designing an adequate environmental education system, pinpointing pro-environmental awareness, intention, and behaviors. Many research studies have discussed to raise environmental awareness and knowledge of primary school students, but little research consider the


Virtual Classroom Management from the Teachers’ Position in the New Education Normality

Given the current pandemic emergency (COVID-19), it is necessary to have updated information on the educational reality of Ecuador. Education, in any situation, should be a priority and should never stop, which leads to adapting the curriculum to the emergency through virtual classrooms; although they already existed before, not all schools and students used it


Utilizing Mentor Texts with Elementary Students

Mentor text can be utilized in all academic areas to support students. While many educators often associate mentor texts with reading and writing, quality mentor texts can go beyond those two academic areas, such as math, science, social studies, and physical education/health. While selecting mentor texts, educators need to look for texts with engaging characters,


Supporting Out-of-School Literacy Experiences

Educators are aware of the importance of extending the learning environment beyond the classroom. When parents, guardians, and families are involved in the learning process, students have additional support and can make greater academic gains. Learning Liftoff (2015) states “recent research on the best practices in education suggests that parental involvement, not income or social


Resilience Throughout Books for Young Learners

The global pandemic changed the lives of many adults and children across the globe. As students return to school and continue to navigate the new world after facing this hardship, educators must be prepared to provide support and guidance. Mulvahill (2021) shares “kids need support and instruction to manage successfully in school (whether that’s in


Metacognitive Awareness, Motivational Beliefs and Mathematics Performance of Junior High School Students: An Investigation of Mediating Effects

Metacognition and motivational beliefs are crucial components of self-regulated learning. Effective learners are expected to exhibit the ability to plan, evaluate, regulate and control their attitudes and behaviors during the learning process. Thus, this study investigated whether students’ motivational beliefs significantly mediate the relationship between students’ metacognitive awareness and mathematics performance. The study was conducted


Goal Setting in the Classroom to Promote Academic and Social-Emotional Growth

Academic growth is a common goal for educators, administrators, and parents. When educators provide opportunities for students to determine appropriate goals for themselves, students have opportunities to actively work towards the goal and take ownership over their learning. Important to note is “goal setting must include four components to best motivate students: providing them opportunities


Learning Effectiveness of Primary School Children in the Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

COVID-19 has an impact on the unpreparedness of the community and the government, especially in improving the quality of children’s education. The increasing number of cases with rapid escalation has forced the government to take steps to reduce problems, especially the education of elementary school children. The Ministry of Indonesian Education issued Guidelines for Organizing


The Processes of Educational Communication in Primary Schools Determined by the State of Emergency in the Czech Republic

The paper focuses on the current methods of educational communication in primary schools in the Czech Republic. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the educational conditions have dynamically transformed in our country. It has even been reported that pupils’ absence from full-time attendance is the longest in Europe. Some pupils (including primary school pupils)


The Challenges of COVID-19 School Closures on Teaching and Learning in Primary and Secondary Schools in India

With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world have sought to protect the most vulnerable of its citizens from being infected with the virus. They have rushed to put in place policies that included school closures. This presentation elucidates a timeline of events such as school closures had on the teaching and


Plan-Do-Review-Share-Happy (Plandoresh) as a Development Strategy for Critical Thinking of Vocational School Students

The learning process and traditional teaching materials include activities that require memory and memorization. Most students are trained to follow this low-level thinking pattern in schools including vocational schools. When computers take over the routine tasks at work, a number of employees will be involved in tasks that require them to be more flexible and


Improving Grade 3 Students’ Poetry Writing Skills Through Flipped Model of Instruction

The flipped model of instruction has been the focus of many researchers through the years due to its impact on students’ academic performance. This action research study aims to uncover the pedagogical effects of applying the flipped classroom strategy to Grade 3 students’ poetry writing skills. The researcher applied the triangulation technique where the data


Barriers to Girls’ Education at the Elementary Level in India

Gender inequality in India has remained a subject of considerable interest among the researchers. With about one-third population comprising of the youth, India has tried to improve access and quality of education to reap benefits of this demographic dividend. Despite its sustained efforts, studies have found that girls in India still face disadvantage in access


Increasing Reproduction of Territorial and Social Inequalities in Public Education in Hungary: Causes, Components, Practices and Mechanisms

In the lecture, I examine the development and reproduction of socio-spatial inequalities through the system of education, learning and training. I consciously approach phenomena from a “bottom-up” perspective as they become perceived by people and their communities getting in contact with educational institutions. In this vein, in my analysis spatial representations of the world economy,


Stand Alone Worksheets for Basic Mathematical Computation Skills Development

The recent National Achievement Test (NAT) results proved the mathematics performance of Filipino learners fall below the DepEd’s 75% MPS target. Additionally, international assessments including TIMSS and PISA revealed similar poor results of Filipino students in math. This study developed “Stand Alone Worksheets” (SAW) to address least mastered computation skills; it revealed the developed Grade


Relationship Between STEM Attitude and Empowerment: A Descriptive Study in Costa Rican Girls

This study aimed to examine the correlation between empowerment perception and STEM attitudes in young girls from a Costa Rican high school. 327 young people aged 11 to 18 years from “Colegio de Señoritas”. The sample included only girls, from different ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, living in different parts of the urban area in San


Embedding Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Design and Technology Subject Through Value-based Approach

As the world evolves in technology and rapid development, education remains the optimal mechanism to instill moral values and virtues amongst society, specifically in early education. This paper explores from Malaysian Education perspectives, particularly on teacher’s pedagogical approaches in embedding Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), the element comprises of environment, social, and economy as the


Comparing Indigeneous and Non Indigeneous Drawings: A Lesson Learnt

The study explores the use of language in elementary indigenous students from bilingual communities through the systematic analysis of their drawings. The article aims to observe whether bilingual students when asked to draw certain culture-key elements determine or not the use of a specific language spontaneously. Two hundred twenty-five indigenous girls and boys from five


Who’s Who in High School Computer Science Textbooks in Taiwan

The scientists mentioned in a computer science textbook represent the significance of their contribution to the field. By learning about the life of the scientists and the societal and cultural background at the time, students learn not only science knowledge but also how science interacts with human life. This study examines how computer scientists presented


The Effects of Questioning Strategy on Young Girl Students in Web Quest Activity

Promoting science learning and science performance of girl students has been an important issue. The study explored the effects of questioning strategy on young girl students in a webquest activity. A quasi-experimental design was adopted on 46 fifth-grade girl students. These students participated in a mixed-gender group activity aided by questioning strategy with detail question


Today’s Choices for Selecting a School: Private, Public, Charter, or Homeschool

Today, “equity” and “a quality education” are is at the forefront of education conversations. Local and national efforts are increasing to meet individual students where they are and provide relevant support to overcome obstacles preventing them from a fair chance at an education in a public school. Three years ago, gender was one of the


Science Program in Selected Public Elementary Schools: A Formative Evaluation

The implementation of the K to 12 curriculum in the Philippines started in 2012. While the program began with Grade 1 and Grade 7 students, the succeeding levels were introduced as these students get promoted to the next grade levels in the following school year. During the school year 2011-12, Republic Act 10157 or the


Professional Development, Instructional Practices and Academic Performance of Mathematics Students, Muang District Elementary Schools, Suratthani, Thailand

This study purported to investigate the professional development (PD), instructional practices (IP) of the teachers and their relationships to the academic performance of grades five and six students in Mathematics of Muang District Elementary Schools, Suratthani, Thailand. Descriptive statistical analysis such as mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics such as correlation, t-test and analysis of


Improving Mathematics Vocabulary Learning in the Foundation Phase

Mathematics is more than numbers. Students should be able to understand and use academic vocabulary to think about and discuss mathematical situations. However, vocabulary learning within the mathematical contexts could be very complex and challenging to students, especially for English Learners. The purpose of this study aims to present a review and synthesize literature regarding the


An Assessment on the Level of Research Competencies of Grade 12-Senior High School Students in a Parochial School

Research is one of the important academic endeavors included in the new K-12 curriculum for the senior high school. Possessing certain level of competency in this academic endeavor will help an individual to take part in the initiative of any institution to create knowledge and contribute significantly in the progress of the nation. The researcher wanted


Pictogramming Workshop (Learning Programming Concepts with Pictogram Contents Creation)

We have been developing content creation environment using human pictogram, called “Pictogramming.” This application can be accessed freely (web site URI: and application URI: Pictogramming is coined from two words, “pictogram” and “programming”. Pictograms are widely used in various fields such as counseling, safety, and facilities. Thus, the pictogram has been researched in


Financial Literacy at the Lower Secondary Schools in the Czech Republic

Importance of financial literacy among the population is permanently increasing. The number of financial products on the market is growing, and the age at which people start to use these products is decreasing. This is also related to the negative impacts of insufficient financial literacy in this area – rising household indebtedness, the high number


Modified Lab Rotation Model: A Blended e-Learning Approach to Improve Student’s Conceptual Understanding of English Verb Tense and Aspect

In language Education, verb tense and aspect is one of the most difficult lessons in elementary grade. For the past three years, S.Y. 2015- 2016,2016-2017 and 2017-2018, English verb tense and aspect is consistently included in the least mastered skills topic in Grade Five English. This study aimed at investigating the use of Modified Lab


Cognitive and Informative Level of Knowledge about Puberty in Primary School Pupils in Sweden

Knowledge is a summary of the acquired information gained in the learning process. It expresses pupils´awareness. Cognitive and informative level of knowledge about puberty represents the grade of instruction and formulates the amount and quality of information or knowledge. Puberty culminates in reproductive capacity achievement. Puberty can be described as a major hormonal process of


Keeping Tabs on Reading: Comparing Reading Comprehension Scores of E-Text Readers and Physical Text Readers in Senior High School

Technology plays a powerful role in the field of education (South, 2017), and with digital integration inside the classroom, scholars debated in the use of these e-texts since issues regarding reading comprehension surfaced as researchers tried to tackle new forms of digital learning (Moran et al., 2008). This research aims to compare the pre and


Implementation of K to 12 Science Program of Public Elementary Schools: Teachers’ Pedagogical Practices and Problems Encountered in Teaching Science

The study aimed at conducting formative evaluation of the implementation of K to 12 Science Program of public elementary schools in Santo Tomas District, Isabela, The Philippines for the first semester, school year 2017-2018. Specifically, the study aimed to determine teachers’ pedagogical practices and common problems encountered by teachers and administrators. The respondents of the


Visual Basic Coding in Power Point-Based Lessons in Grade 6 Mathematics

There is no doubt that education and the learning process has changed since the introduction of computers such as PowerPoint-Based Lessons. It includes pedagogical approaches like interactive learning, inquiry-based approach, discovery learning and contextualized-localized learning that promotes student-centered activities and lessons, teacher-assisted instructions and appreciation of the locale by-products, livelihood, academic-occupational relevance, and individuality. Mixed


Tough Situation of Teachers in Information Technology in Japanese Junior and Senior High Schools

Japan played a major economic growth after the World War II, which could be realized with high industrial skill because of engineering education such as mechanical engineering and electrical engineering. However, in recent years, everyone agrees that the importance of information technology is rapidly increasing, while the industrial technology is also inevitable. Currently in Japan,