In this study, we investigate how differentiation via digital technologies can be exploited through formative assessment (FA) strategies. A three-dimensional assessment framework is developed via a European project FaSMEd (2022) by eight experienced elementary teachers, familiar with digital technology, who received instructions (and support) for FA mathematics strategies. Five FA strategies were used to support differentiation and assess how digital technology facilitated the following FaSMEd strategies: (1) clarify and sharing learning intentions; (2) enhancing effective classroom discussions and participating in learning tasks; (3) providing feedback to students; (4) activating students as instructional resources; (5) activating students as the owners of their own learning (Wiliam & Thompson, 2007). Eight in-service teachers observed student behavior in their math classes via three codings, (1) sending and sharing; (2) processing and analyzing; (3) providing an interactive environment, in the five FA strategies. We explored to what extent, digital technology supported teachers’ differentiation and students’ learning. We found that digital technology can function as a support for enhancing and increasing classroom discussions and participation in learning tasks. Through digital technology, teachers proved more effective as facilitators, provided more and better feedback to students, and extended use of learning resources. Students initiated more meaningful mathematics discussions and showed increased ownership of learning tasks.
Hsuehi Lo, St. Cloud State University, United States
John Hoover, St. Cloud State University, United States