In recent years, scholars have placed more emphasis on teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) and Design Thinking (DT) abilities in order to promote students’ learning experiences. Accordingly, this mix-method research aims to: (1) develop the Integration of Technology into Design Thinking Questionnaire (ITDTQ) and (2) explore the instructor’s TPACK and students’ learning experiences in the "Group Dynamics" course (N=41) developed with TPACK and five-stages of DT. Quantitative data included ITDTQ and Design Thinking Questionnaire (DTQ) developed from a prior study. Qualitative data contained students’ interviews and self-reflections and the instructor’s teaching logs and interview. The factor and item analyses concluded the final 10-item ITDTQ with two factors: "Use of Technology for Evaluation and Application" (UTEA, four items, α=.85) and "Integrative Learning Experience of Using Technology" (ILEUT, six items, α=.90). The four factors of DTQ (i.e., interactive communication, higher-order thinking, goal evaluation and application, and integrative learning experience) and two factors of ITDTQ showed significant positive correlations. The qualitative results indicated that the instructor needed further development in practicing content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and technological content knowledge (TCK) in leading Design Thinking activities. Students were able to apply the content learned from the course when doing activities in their group. The students demonstrated that 3D printing was an effective technology tool to practice Ideate and Prototype of Design Thinking; however, the use of 3D printing to concretize their creative solutions was challenging. Implications will be discussed upon conference presentation.
Meng-Fang Tsai, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Yang-Hsueh Chen, National Chengchi University, Taiwan