Levitsky and Way have a particular place in the study of democratization since most of the scholars analysing the effects of the linkage and the leverage refer to their works. They define Western leverage as the “incumbent governments’ vulnerability to external pressure for democratization”. Linkage basically means “the density of ties and cross-border flows between a particular country” and the Western world. Levitsky and Way regard linkage as a more determinative factor than leverage by contending that “Leverage in the absence of linkage has rarely been sufficient to induce democratization since the end of the cold war”. However, the intensity of Turkey’s linkage to Europe could not compensate the negative effects of the declining leverage over democratization since 2006. Levitsky and Way’s argument that linkage matters more than leverage does not apply to Turkey.
Burak Cop, Istanbul Kültür University, Turkey
Stream: Globalization and Internationalization
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