A special volume on ‘Absolute Reductions’ in the Journal of Cleaner Production (Akenji, Bengtsson, Bleischwitz, Tukker, & Schandl, 2016) emphasised the need for a radical socio-technical transformation that can bring material, energy and emissions within the ecological limits. Economic activities are at the heart of consumption of materials and energy and emissions being the waste generated. With regard to the nexus between economic development and environmental impacts, the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is widely used, some studies supporting it while others contrasting it. Now there is an emerging research strands that test EKC by investigating the nexus between the environmental intensity of human wellbeing (EIWB) and economic growth (Knight & Rosa, 2011; Lamb, 2016; Lamb et al., 2014; Steinberger & Roberts, 2010; Sulkowski & White, 2015). This study follows this emerging research strand. Using a regression analysis, the paper attempts to discipline conjecture with data for the case of Bhutan, which hardly appears in the relevant literature. Based on the results of the regression analysis and the EKC theory, the paper discusses if the case of Bhutan inclines towards the treadmill of production theory or the modernisation theory.
Dorji Yangka, Curtin University, Australia
Stream: Climate change
This paper is part of the IICSEEHawaii2018 Conference Proceedings (View)
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