This paper investigates power-dependence of central-local government relations and interdependence of international relations. The power-dependence means political dependence in the political networks between central government, bureaucracy, local government and interest groups in common regime state. On the other hand, the interdependence means comprehensive relationship, from which zero-sum game is not necessarily derived, between various states with different regimes. This paper investigates two issues based on these political theories. First, this paper explores degrees of power-dependence among central government, bureaucracy and local government, focusing on degree of involvement of bureaucracy in Japan. By scrutinizing several cases, I classify degrees of involvement of bureaucracy into three categories; initiative of bureaucracy, initiative of the politicians and initiative of the domestic interest group. I also discuss conservatism of the bureaucracy in Japan. Second, as for interdependence in the international relations (IR), this paper explores degree of influence of the domestic interest group to the bureaucracy in the negotiation of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP), especially between Japan and U.S. and the negotiation of the Economic Partnership Agreement between Japan and the EU. In both negotiations, strong opinions of the interest groups are seen from the conservative agriculture associations in the U.S., the EU and Japan. I consider reasons why conservative interest group raises conflict between different Ministries of bureaucracy group of a state. This paper also investigates Japan-United Kingdom relations from viewpoint of degree of involvement of bureaucracy.
Yoshihiro Nagata, Nagoya University, Japan
Paper Information Conference: ECSS2017
Stream: Politics, Public Policy, Law and Criminology
Added on Tuesday, June 20th, 2017
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