Energy resources and generation of energy have always been popular topics since the industrial revolution. While the necessity for increased energy generation stands out clearly, debates have been arising pertaining to different energy resources, methods of extraction of resources, and processing techniques with environmental and health safety concerns. Shale gas is one of those resources, which became more favored after the application of hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) method for extraction of it. However concerns came along with this technique due to high-pressure injection of fracking fluid which consists of water, sand, and numerous chemicals some of which have high toxicity such as methanol. This study investigates the upward flow of methanol from the hydrofrac zone. Three case studies are conducted for the shale basins in Marcellus, Pennsylvania and Bakken, North Dakota in USA, and Bowland in UK. Theoretical analysis was conducted employing governing equations for incompressible, turbulent flow of methanol. Numerical analysis of the flow was also performed through a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software using finite volume method. Stratigraphic data including layer thickness, permeability, porosity, and inertial resistance for all three basins were implemented into the model. Analysis was done on a transient basis and pressure and velocity distributions of methanol were obtained for all pilot basins studied.
Serdar Celik, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, USA
Vineel Busa, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, USA
Stream: Energy: Environmental Degradation
This paper is part of the ECSEE2016 Conference Proceedings (View)
View / Download the full paper in a new tab/window
Powered by WP LinkPress