This paper is an elaboration of the research results generated from three activities: a meta-analysis, field studies and reflexivity. The fieldwork took place in Melaka and Dumai. The network of human smuggling in the Malacca Strait takes three main forms:fraud and demand models and the other is necessity model. The first two models are most often used as a tool to investigate elements related to human trafficking, including human smuggling. There are important differences to human smuggling of the necessitymodel. In this area the root problem lies at and around the invisible actors, including the state and other violence actors which sometime the researcher tend to ignore. Human smuggling has affected state security, from territorial security until the state power and sovereignty including human security. Therefore, the most appropriate way to combat human smuggling is a defensive strategy in which elements of ethics and responsibility of governance integrated in it. With moral values included, hence the state could still possible serve as a basis for security policy, and as a force for improvements in global security governance.
Zulkifli Harza, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Ranny Emilia, Andalas University, Indonesia
Stream: International Relations and Human Rights
This paper is part of the APSec2015 Conference Proceedings (View)
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