This paper examines the energy consumption of pesticide applications in New Zealand. Energy use in pest control using pesticides is investigated in the horticultural, arable, pastoral and forestry sectors, based on30 different groups of farm products. On average, total energy consumption in pesticide applications in New Zealand was estimated at about 2,350,757 GJ. Energy use in pesticide applications was about 160 MJ/ha. The pastoral and horticultural sectors are ranked first and second in terms of total energy usage for pesticide applications, at about 1,109,389 GJ and 704,511 GJ, respectively. The horticultural sector has the most intensive pesticide consumption at around 5,855 MJ/ha. The total operational energy was about 20% of total energy use of which 90% was for fuel. Herbicides are applied more than other pesticides in most agricultural sectors; therefore, energy equivalent of herbicides is ranked first with 1,353,503 GJ and 58% of total energy use. However, fungicides and insecticides are mostly used in the horticultural sector. Total CO2 emissions from pesticide applications was estimated at around 145857 tonnes. The CO2 emission from pesticide applications is estimated at about 10 kg/ha.
Majeed Safa, Lincoln University, New Zealand
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