Changes of German Foreign and Security Policy Since Russian-Ukraine War –For Understanding the German Eurasian Strategy


German security policy under Scholz government changed from prudent to assertive one. “Policy entrepreneur” led to Militarization of German foreign policy. Thereby they broke the taboo norm about weapon provision much more deeply. As the result, Germany mostly abandoned the “culture of restraint.” Additionally, they decided to promote militarization and increase the defense expenditure-to-GDP ratio from about 1.5% in 2019 to more than 2% by 2024. Moreover, German energy policy changed since the occurrence of Russian Ukraine war. As China’s economy developed and the concurrence in trade and the friction based on the difference in political system increased, German strengthened to recognize China as the villain which do not share the values. There is inconsistency in the Scholz government's China policy. Its background can be explained to some extent by the theory of political party differences. Being different from the Merkel government where there were consensus under “transformation through trade” strategy, there is a conflict under Scholz government between the Green Party, which pursues ideals, and the SPD, which emphasizes economic interests. Germany's overdependence on Russia's energy sources was corrected during the Russian-Ukraine, and the diversification of energy import sources has been promoted. Moreover, overdependency in trade with China has been revised since Russian-Ukraine war. German foreign policy, like the two-faced god Janus, fuses the ideas of civilian power and "normal great power," but possesses a "Leitbild" in which the latter is superior. German leadership and foreign policy would become more destable than before from the background of party system.

Author Information
Yoichi Nakagawa, Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Paper Information
Conference: APISA2023
Stream: Global governance

This paper is part of the APISA2023 Conference Proceedings (View)
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To cite this article:
Nakagawa Y. (2023) Changes of German Foreign and Security Policy Since Russian-Ukraine War –For Understanding the German Eurasian Strategy ISSN: 2758-9374 APISA 17th Annual Congress (APISA2023) Official Conference Proceedings
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Posted by James Alexander Gordon