Development and Evaluation of Frankards: A Manipulative for Teaching Probability


This study focused on developing and evaluating an instructional material based on the needs of mathematics teachers and on the least mastered learning competencies in Grade 10 Mathematics. Baseline data gathered revealed that teachers faced difficulties in contextualizing and discussing the concepts of statistics and probability. They specifically cited the lack of instructional materials for the learning competencies under this content area. This served as the basis for the development of Frankards, a manipulative designed to aid in teaching the concepts of probability. This study utilized a development research method and adopted the ADDIE Model in creating the manipulative. Subsequently, Frankards was evaluated by teachers and instructional material developers using the standardized Evaluation Rating Sheet for Manipulatives prescribed by the Philippines’ Department of Education. Frankards passed all the criteria set for the three areas of evaluation, namely: Contents (Factor A), Other Findings (Factor B), and Additional Requirement for Manipulative (Factor C). Revisions related to the visual aspects of the manipulative were suggested. The evaluators have recommended that the developed manipulative be submitted for copyright. It was further suggested that the effectiveness of the manipulative be subjected to an experimental study. It was also proposed that a teacher training on its use be conducted to further validate its benefits to both teachers and learners.

Author Information
Frankie A. Fran, Ateneo de Manila University and Romblon State University, Philippines
Catherine P. Vistro-Yu, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines

Paper Information
Conference: SEACE2023
Stream: Nurturing Creativity & Innovation: New

This paper is part of the SEACE2023 Conference Proceedings (View)
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To cite this article:
Fran F., & Vistro-Yu C. (2023) Development and Evaluation of Frankards: A Manipulative for Teaching Probability ISSN: 2435-5240 The Southeast Asian Conference on Education 2023: Official Conference Proceedings
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Posted by James Alexander Gordon