The Challenges and Strategies of COVID-19 Online Learning and Teaching: A Comparative Case Study of Higher Education in Afghanistan and Indonesia


The huge impact of the pandemic has altered many sectors of life, including higher education. Forcing students and lecturers to adjust themselves to online learning and teaching, the COVID-19 outbreak has created overwhelming challenges for both students and lecturers. In order to tackle the challenges and study as normally as possible, they come up with specific strategies. In this regard, the study investigates the challenges students and lecturers face during COVID-19 online learning and teaching in a private university in Afghanistan and a public university in Indonesia. Furthermore, it explores the strategies they applied during COVID-19 online learning and teaching to deal with these challenges. In addition, it is intended to compare the students’ and lecturers’ experiences in online learning and teaching in both countries. To obtain the data, the study employs open-ended questionnaires using Google Form. The Google Form is distributed through WhatsApp and emails to students and lecturers at a public university in Indonesia and a private university in Afghanistan. Data analysis uses the online engagement framework for higher education to filter and generate themes into concepts. Identifying the challenges and strategies of online teaching and learning would provide practical understanding for both students and lecturers as well as educational institutions in terms of better online learning and teaching management.

Author Information
Hazrat Shah Kayen, Indonesian International Islamic University, Indonesia
Fadla Tsania Agustia, Indonesian International Islamic University, Indonesia

Paper Information
Conference: ACE2022
Stream: Adult

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Posted by James Alexander Gordon