Failure is inevitable for students. The serious failures for students in Japanese schools are failure to pass exams and late submission deadline. How students are comforted in such failures may affect their recovery and motivation for further study. Since friends, instead of teachers, are the significant others in adolescence, we examined the effectiveness of eight types of comforting strategies from friends (including empathy, advice, presentation of the friend's own failure, physical contact, and offer of assistance at the pace of the student, etc.). Participants were 153 female university students. Questionnaire. The results showed that in the two situations a more effective way of comforting was to include an offer of help, taking into consideration the pace of recovery at which the student was able to receive the comfort, rather than to include advice (Main effects of comforting strategies; Exam scene F (7,2128) = 31.89, p<.01, task scene F (7,2128) = 16.81, p<.01). Consolation with advice was difficult to accept, especially in the failed exam scene. Next, we analyzed the effect of the difference in psychological distance from friends on comforting. It was suggested that, depending on the difference in psychological distance from friends, there were some ways of comforting that were ineffective even when comforted by friends who were with them on a daily basis (Exam scene F (1,151) = 18.48, p<.01, Task scene F (1,151) = 10.42, p<.01). We will discuss different effective ways of consolation from friends that empower students who have experienced painful failures.
Haruka Hayashida, Nagasaki Junshin Catholic University, Japan
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