An Empirical Investigation of Feedback Sequencing on Emotion Regulation Processes


The effects of receiving feedback on course assessments have emotional implications for students (e.g., Ryan & Henderson, 2018) that extend to motivation and behavior (Boud & Falchilvov, 2007). Receiving negative feedback, then, may have harmful effects on students’ emotions, motivation, and performance. A way in which students’ emotions may be regulated is through employing the “feedback sandwich” (Dohrenwent, 2002). The method focuses on variability in feedback ordering, and specifically holds that “sandwiching” constructive feedback in between two positive statements is the most effective way to deliver negative feedback to students. While widely discussed in the popular press, there exists little empirical research on the effectiveness of method, and to date, only one study has examined the effects of the feedback sandwich on emotion regulation. This study presents an empirical test of the effects of feedback sequencing on emotion regulation. Results indicate that the sandwich method did not have an effect on either positive or negative emotion. Results are discussed in light of their theoretical and applied implications for feedback sequencing.

Author Information
Emily A. Dolan, Slippery Rock University, United States
David P. Keppel, Slippery Rock University, United States
Jessica M. Covert, Singapore Institute of Management, Singapore
Brittany L. Fleming, Slippery Rock University, United States

Paper Information
Conference: IICE2022
Stream: Mind

This paper is part of the IICE2022 Conference Proceedings (View)
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To cite this article:
Dolan E., Keppel D., Covert J., & Fleming B. (2022) An Empirical Investigation of Feedback Sequencing on Emotion Regulation Processes ISSN: 2189-1036 – The IAFOR International Conference on Education – Hawaii 2022 Official Conference Proceedings
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Posted by James Alexander Gordon