One of the ongoing discussions in the economics of education relates to the features of education systems that are linked to better learning outcomes in students. While there is a consensus on the importance of accountability and human resource management (HRM) practices in this context, literature on education systems has yet to analyse these as complementary features that could positively influence student learning outcomes. This research establishes the cross-national differences in the patterns of school accountability and HRM practices and examine how they influence student learning outcomes, particularly in disadvantaged schools. The study employs the latent class analysis and multilevel regression modelling on the 79 PISA-participating countries to establish a typology of school accountability and HRM practices across countries, and to understand how different accountability and HRM practice models impact student learning outcomes, and how they work in schools with different disadvantage profiles. The research contributes to the literature on education systems by creating a classification of accountability and HRM practices across countries and linking the typology to learning outcomes, and school disadvantage profiles. The analysis also provides guidance on the design and implementation of educational policies by offering a comprehensive understanding on how schools in different countries, and particularly in disadvantaged areas, can best adopt accountability mechanisms and HRM practices.
Lilac Florentino, University of Queensland, Australia