Problem-solving has been studied in many disciplines (Jonassen, 2011; Lazonder & Rouet, 2008; Lester, 1994), however, it has not been explored extensively in the field of instructional design (Jonassen, 2000, 2011). Given the importance of solving ill-structured problems in daily life, there is a need to create effective instruction to teach such skills. Metacognition is regarded as key to solving ill-structured problems (Lin, Hmelo, Kinzer, & Secules, 1999; Jonassen, 2000). Therefore, metacognitive scaffolds can be integrated into computer-based curricula to teach problem-solving skills. Interactive features in eLearning authoring tools can be used effectively to design metacognitive scaffolds. The rich affordances of such tools allow designers, instructors, and other stakeholders to present and tackle a problem with utilizing a wide variety of media attributes. Given these affordances, a need exists for guidance on how to leverage the features of such environments to support meta-cognitive scaffolding. This study focused on the development a computer-based interactive content design framework to guide the design of metacognitive scaffolds in ill-structured problem-solving instruction. The framework was composed by synthesizing research and practical literature, and then evaluated by experts. The completed framework includes metacognitive strategies, instructional design strategies, interactive media types, question prompts, and feedback. Instructional designers, instructors, and other key stakeholders could follow the guidelines to create metacognitive-based ill-structured problem-solving instruction using e-Learning authoring tools.
Qing Zhang, SUNY-Oswego, United States
Barbara Lockee, Virginia Tech, United States