Effective writing is a transversal skill and its importance is set in the teaching and learning guiding documents of the Portuguese government. However, writing, including narrative writing, is also one of the students' greatest difficulties in Portuguese school settings. The lower proficiency in writing should be recognized as a problem as well as the need for supporting students’ effective writing development. Self-regulation is a cornerstone of effective writing, with research on the use of self-regulated strategies for writing confirming this theoretical assumption. However, less research has been developed to investigate shared regulation and co-regulation strategies for writing. This research presents a systematic review of studies examining the importance of shared regulation and co-regulation in writing activities. After title and abstract screening, 38 studies met this review’s aims and were examined. Findings corroborate the advantages of explicit and systematic teaching of processes and strategies involved in text composing. Moreover, explicit teaching is needed to promote not only self-regulation strategies but also socially shared regulation and co-regulation strategies in writing activities. Findings further suggest that it is still necessary to deepen the interaction between co-regulation and shared regulation in terms of their benefits, under what circumstances they occur, and what triggers them. The majority of the studies investigating the development of self-regulated writing presents classroom interventions conducted by trained researchers, with few programs implemented by teachers. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed.
Itália Temudo, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Anabela Malpique, University of Murdoch, Australia
Janete Silva Moreira, University of Lisbon, Portugal