Teaching Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): An E-module for Teacher Training in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic


The global prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased markedly in recent decades. However, many mainstream teachers are lacking knowledge and skills to teach students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in inclusive settings, particularly in the least-developed countries. To address the issue, we designed an e-module called ‘The Story of Khamdy’, which is uploaded onto Facebook Social Learning Platform as a free online resource. A novelty of this e-module is the presentation of a story through the compilation of 160 pictures that illustrate the everyday experience of a boy with ASD called Khamdy and how his parents and teachers helped him cope with daily living challenges. The acquisition of knowledge from the story was reinforced by 100 quiz questions which were designed to facilitate knowledge recalling and retention. The generalization of knowledge was enabled by the application of CCAF model (the initials stand for context, challenge, activity, and feedback) in the design of 12 assessment questions of this e-module. In a preliminary study, the social validity and user satisfaction of this module was assessed to inform the effectiveness of this e-module as a virtual interactive e-learning application for the purpose of ASD teacher training in Lao’s People Democratic Republic, a country categorized as one of the least-developed countries by the United Nations. The social validity was assessed using the adapted Intervention Rating Profile while the user satisfaction was assessed and analysed according to Kano’s customer satisfaction model. The findings offered insights to inform future trend in teacher training using open-access online resources with proven effectiveness and sustainability.

Author Information
Somchay Makesavanh, Souphanouvong University, Laos
Hui Min Low, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Lay Wah Lee, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Tze Peng Wong, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Malaysia
Ann Sien Sut Lee, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Bounthieng Vongsouangtham, Souphanouvong University, Laos

Paper Information
Conference: ACE2019
Stream: Implementation & Assessment of Innovative Technologies in Education

This paper is part of the ACE2019 Conference Proceedings (View)
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Posted by James Alexander Gordon