This paper investigates Bureaucrats and Politicians in Power-Dependence of Domestic Politics and Interdependence, Linkage of Diplomacy: From Bureaucratic Leadership to Official Residence Leadership. This paper consists of two parts. First, this paper investigates the common factors between Power-Dependence of domestic politics and Interdependence in international relations. The power-dependence means political dependence in the political networks between central government, bureaucracy, local government and interest groups in common regime state. The interdependence means comprehensive relationship, from which zero-sum game is not necessarily derived, between various states with different regimes. Second, this paper investigates Bureaucrats and Politicians focusing on the history from bureaucratic leadership to official residence leadership in Japan. The bureaucracy in Japan, especially the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has been main actor of Japan after the 55 system, the Conservative Merger in 1955. From the late 50s to the 70s, each Liberal Democratic Administrations, led by strong leadership of prime ministers, Kishi, and Ikeda, succeeded in Japan-US Security Treaty and doubling of income, respectively. Since the 70s, the foreign economic policy is forwarded between the United States and Japan in place of the security and political issues between them. Prime minister Nakasone, Hashimoto and Koizumi tried to reorganize the bureaucracy. In Japan, the bureau of personnel at Cabinet Office changed the bureaucrat-led politics to politician-led politics. This paper investigates how government and bureaucracy cooperate for the success of policy making.
Yoshihiro Nagata, Nagoya University, Japan
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