Integrating Environmental Education (EE) for Sustainability into Primary School Curriculum in Tanzania: Exploring Stakeholders’ Views and Perceptions


This study explores the views and perceptions of teachers and curriculum specialists on the integration of environmental education into primary education in Tanzania, East Africa. Empirical studies by Kimaryo (2011) and Mtaita (2007 ) discovered that although EE is included in Tanzanian primary schools since 1960’s and even stressed in the policy of education; yet, the condition of environment has not improved. Numerous studies also recommend that the implementation of EE has not been successful while the state of environment is deteriorating (Morrison 2013, Kimaryo 2011, Mtaita 2007). Despite the fact that research shows the integration of EE in primary schools in Tanzania has yielded little results, yet there is dearth of research in this area. The study is qualitative in nature based on grounded theory approach mainly Straussian perspective. Data was gathered from five primary schools’ teachers and curriculum specialists using interviews and document review. A thematically focused analysis of data from 30 teachers revealed that, environmental changes and challenges are mainly seen as anthropogenic. Awareness of sustainability pillars is generally low and their balance is impossible without addressing the poverty issue. Further the study shows that multidisciplinary and single subject approaches are effective ways to integrate EE into the curriculum. Teachers’ competence and motivation is lowered by lack of resources and professional training, large class sizes and work load and lack of government priority on environmental issues.

Author Information
Aurelia Kimaro, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Paper Information
Conference: ECE2017
Stream: Education for sustainable development

This paper is part of the ECE2017 Conference Proceedings (View)
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Posted by James Alexander Gordon