The paper considers metaphorical and metonymical descriptions of places when a place-name target domain correlates with two or more source domains. It is argued that the target and the sources are united by means of some common element, which provides wholeness of the multi-source metaphor/metonyny. Such metaphors and metonymies are represented by the structure ‘A is B, C…’ and its variations, explicitness of the target contributes to comprehension of the sources. Multi-source metaphors are highly expressive. It is argued that in metaphor the common element that unites a multi-source metaphor into a single entity is to be abstract, and to reflect some common quality, that is inherent to all the sources attached to the target, mostly this common feature consists in similarity of perception or/and evaluation. Such metaphors show the author’s attitude and/or impression of the place, they are either positive or negative (e. g. positive evaluation as a linking element in the multi-source metaphor of England in Shakespeare’s ‘Richard III’ Act II, Sc. I). Elements of multi-source metonymies are united into a single entity by means of contiguity of placement. Still it is suggested that just contiguity of placement is not enough, a highly abstract quality is needed for the wholeness of the image, which is most commonly either evaluation, or common associations with the place, as in the case with metaphor.
Irina Kondakova, the Vyatka State University of Humanities, Kirov, Russia
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