The early understanding and identification of the difficulties faced by learners in learning Pre-calculus are critical for any intervention to be developed. Thus, this study aimed to identify the difficulties encountered in teaching and learning the Pre-Calculus subject content, and the competencies which are difficult to teach and learn using face-to-face and online instruction. The result of the investigations served as the bases in developing an instructional material in Pre-Calculus. The research participants were the Grade 11 senior high school Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics learners who took the Pre-Calculus subject, and the Grade 11 teachers teaching Pre-Calculus. The data were gathered using the researcher-made instruments: Pre-Calculus Teaching and Learning Difficulties Questionnaire and Pre-Calculus Learning Competency Checklist with Cronbach alpha reliability value of 0.87 and 0.98, respectively. Results revealed that the common difficulties encountered by teachers and learners are absorbing complex new ideas in a limited time, translating real-world problems into Pre-Calculus formulation, applying knowledge to solve real-world problems, deepen interest in Pre-Calculus, and demonstrate in-depth knowledge of the subject matter. It was also found out that the top 5 most difficult competencies to teach and learn are solving situational problems involving polar coordinates system, solve situational problems involving inverse trigonometric functions, solve situational problems involving trigonometric identities, prove other trigonometric identities, and convert the coordinates of a point from rectangular to polar systems and vice versa. The Self-learning Through Examples in Precalculus (STEP) Module was developed by the researcher considering the difficulties encountered in teaching and learning the subject.
Leizel Parreno, Leon National High School, Philippines
Roberto Sagge, West Visayas State University, Philippines