Promoting Pre-service Teachers’ Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) Through Developing Virtual Reality Applications With the Assure Instructional Design Model


The promotion of teachers’ TPACK, namely the integration of content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge for teaching has become a major concern among researchers and educational practitioners. Moreover, cultivating teachers’ augmented reality and virtual reality (AR/VR) capabilities has become an important issue of government policy. Drawing on Kohloer and Mishra’s Learning by Design principle and the longstanding ASSURE instructional design model, this study intends to leverage pre-service teachers’ TPACK through the “AVR-ASSURE” classroom intervention. In Spring 2021, 24 pre-service teachers enrolled in the "Design and Utilization of Instructional Media" teacher education course went through the AVR-ASSURE course modules. They learned the Cospaces AR/VR authoring platform, explored good examples in the gallery, familiarized themselves with ASSURE procedures, developed virtual reality courseware, and were ready to implement authentic teaching in elementary classrooms. Unfortunately, due to a sudden outbreak of Covid-19 in Taiwan in May 2021, only two groups successfully carried out their teaching in the physical elementary classroom. The other four groups transformed their materials and taught online within our teacher education course. Data collected from the TPACK survey, individual course reflection and group interview were analyzed to inform the effectiveness of the AVR-ASSURE classroom intervention. Wilcoxon signed-rank test results showed that, the pre-service teachers significantly increased their TPACK total scores and the TK, TPK, TCK, and TPACK dimensions. Qualitative data are being analyzed to find influential factors for the pre-service teachers’ TPACK development, as well as their perceptions and actions toward the Covid-19 outbreak. Implications will be discussed along with practical suggestions.

Author Information
Yang-Hsueh Chen, National Chengchi University, Taiwan
Meng-Fang Tsai, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan

Paper Information
Conference: IICE2022
Stream: Professional Training

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Posted by James Alexander Gordon