Literature continues to highlight the importance of stakeholder participation, although it also emphasizes that it can be misapplied. Participation generates a considerable cost for the organizer and participant. This research addresses how organic participation organized by the stakeholders and how the cost of participation influences the inclusiveness of the process. This study is conducted to compare two case studies; Indonesia (Semanggi, Surakarta) and the Netherlands (Varik and Heeselt). Both cases involved flood protection infrastructure planning that includes the possibility of displacement. In the Indonesian case study, the factors that influenced participation process are strong leadership and solidarity. The cost of participation are shared between participant and the elements of intangible cost, namely; time, information, network, skill, and economic status. Individuals who can afford their participation are well represented and can exercise more influence. However, the participation process challenged by the issue of power, in which community has low bargaining position in terms of illegality. The Netherlands case study, the community, can create community organization to manage the participation process, which can exercise capability to express their positions, posing argument, and engaging external party to support their interest. The cost of participation is perceived high for the group leaders, due to the opportunity cost of time, and anxiety. However, these costs are shared by the participant with a membership fee for the organization. With ability and willingness to borne the cost of participation, and lengthy process, a consensus was finally made in favor of the community.
Mustika Anggraeni, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
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