Two different hypotheses regarding the relation between study time and academic achievement have been proposed. The first hypothesis posits that study time has a noticeable effect on academic achievement because student knowledge increases with time spent practicing and reviewing class material. The second hypothesis states that the positive effect of study time on academic achievement is minimal. The previous meta-analysis by Credé and Kuncel (2008) reported that the relation between study time and academic achievement was small to moderate at best. However, their study had at least two significant limitations. First, their meta-analysis was narrow in scope as it focused specifically on college students while neglecting younger students. Second, their analysis neglected potential moderator effects (such as participant age, participant gender, study domain, and domain of academic achievement) on the relation between study time and academic achievement. The current meta-analysis of 49 studies examines the relation between study time and academic achievement. Seventy-seven independent samples were obtained, yielding a total sample of 19,219 participants. The mean correlation between study time and academic achievement was r = .12, indicating that study time exerted a small but positive influence on academic achievement. Moderator analysis demonstrates that the effects of the domain of study time spent and domain of academic achievement on the relation between study time and academic achievement were supported. Since most studies examined academic study in general rather than focusing on specific subjects, future investigations can examine the relation between study time and academic achievement for specific subject areas.
Chiungjung Huang, National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan
Stream: Student learning
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