The bilateral relations between Indonesia-Malaysia since the independence of Indonesia can be categorized in three phases. The first is the phase of Soekarno as the first president of Indonesia where his foreign policy towards Malaysia was to confront Malaysia due to his ideology of anti-imperialism and anti-colonialism. Soekarno emerged as the trigger factor of the neo-colonialism in Southeast Asian nations as Malaysia was perceived to be the puppet of the British government to arouse interest in Southeast Asia. Hence, Soekarno created Ganyang Malaysia foreign policy or “Crush Malaysia”. The second phase, under President Soeharto, included harmony and full of cooperation between Indonesia and Malaysia. Soeharto normalised the bilateral relations with Malaysia since he considered Malaysia to be an important ally in cooperating with the western countries such as Great Britain, Australia and the United States. As a result, Indonesia and Malaysia along with Thailand, Philippines and Singapore created the regional organization called ASEAN. The third phase, the phase after the Soeharto era and the reformation era has been quite complicated. The disputes of borders and cultures became the major consent of Indonesian government.
Omi Ongge, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Stream: South-East Asian Studies (including Thailand
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