Near a decade, the rapid growth of grit research existed in both educational and psychological literature. The concept of grit is firstly originated by Duckworth and her colleagues (2007) which operationalized into two distinct facets: Consistency of interest refers to individual maintenance of commitment towards long-term goals without getting distracted by new goals, while perseverance of effort refers to individual consistently work hard towards long-term goals over a period of time despite obstacles and failure. Grit becomes increasingly important indicator of students’ academic achievement. However, the recent mixed results failed to support this significant role grit on students’ achievement. Focusing on a different aspect, these mixed results would be explained by cultural factors. Cross-cultural studies suggest that Western cultures emphasize interest in childhood development, while Eastern more emphasizes effort, particularly in Chinese culture. Therefore, this meta-analytic study aims to address these competing hypotheses. A literature search located 19 eligible papers, samples from 9 regions and 15,948 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners in the positive effect of two facets of grit on academic achievement. Results suggest that these relationships do not vary across individualistic-collectivistic cultures, and only effort-achievement does vary across sample regions. The findings provide an updated insight of cultural differences of grit effect on students’ academic achievement – presenting considerations for future research in cross-cultural perspective in grit literature. Further investigation is now required to understand how cultural values or factors significantly play a role in grit construct and the association between grit and achievement.
Kelly Ka Lai Lam, University of Macau, Macau
Mingming Zhou, University of Macau, Macau
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Kelly Ka Lai Lam, and Mingming Zhou