This paper investigates the Bureaucracy of Power-Dependence in Domestic Politics and Diplomacy of Linkage, Interdependence and Soft Law between U.S., U.K., EU and Japan. This paper consists of three parts. First, this paper explores the similarity of power-dependence in domestic politics and interdependence in diplomacy. I consider the power-dependence theory in central-local government relations by Rhodes and the interdependence theory in international relations by Nye and Keohane have common factors. The power-dependence is the political dependence between central government, bureaucracy, interest groups and local government in common regime. Interdependence is the mutual dependence relations between different regimes. Second, this paper investigates the role of bureaucracy and central government which coordinate the politicians, Diet, parties and local government. In negotiating Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement, the EU and Japan has agreed on July 2017. Negotiations are determined by not only central government and bureaucracy, but also politicians and interest groups. Japan central government and bureaucracy have difficulty in coordinating the demand from the domestic politicians and interest groups who have influenced politicians. Third, this paper investigates linkage, interdependence and soft law between U.S., U.K., EU and Japan. The relations between U.S., U.K., EU and Japan become stronger. The partnership between U.S., U.K., EU and Japan includes Soft Law. This paper investigates the degree of linkage and interdependence between U.S., U.K., EU and Japan.
Yoshihiro Nagata, Nagoya University, Japan