Depth Perception and Visual Manipulation of Japanese Gardens


The primary interest of this research is to introduce the principle of visual perception of depth and how the principles are implemented and applied into Japanese garden design. Physical and psychological proximity to nature is essential for Japanese gardens. Consequently, many Japanese gardens are located near or surrounded by natural environment, however some of the gardens are not located in such desired environment. For this reason, some gardens are carefully designed as if to be in the natural environment by manipulating visual perception. In particular, visual perception of depth is essential factor to generate visual manipulation of a space. Generally the depth is perceived by variety of cues including relative size, order, texture gradients, color, lighting and shading, aerial perspective, and linear perspective. In addition to this, the principles of Chinese visual presentation called “Floating Perspective” by Chinese landscape painters, Guo Xi and “The six distances in Chinese landscape painting” by Han Cho are regarded as important principles of depth perception in Japan. Such principles are carefully examined and adopted intelligently to landscape design to improve a landscape or landscape area. "Borrowed scenery" is one of the best example of applying this design technique. In this paper, principles of visual perception of depth in the Western and Eastern culture are briefly described and explained how the principles are effectively implemented into an actual space and created the unique landscape by introducing variety of Japanese gardens.

Author Information
Ran Kamiyama, Toyo University, Japan

Paper Information
Conference: CITY2017
Stream: Geography and Landscape/Urban Planning, Architecture and Design

This paper is part of the CITY2017 Conference Proceedings (View)
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Posted by James Alexander Gordon